Prostate cancer: symptoms, degrees, stages and treatment
Prostate cancer is a serious disease of the male genital area, which is characterized by the development of a malignant tumor from the tissues of the prostate gland. The main risk factors for the development of the disease are: age over 65 years, genetics (the presence of the disease in blood relatives), taking testosterone - the male sex hormone.
Oncology of the genitourinary organs, especially carcinoma of the prostate gland in men, has become “younger” in the last decade and has become more common. Only prostate carcinoma in Russia accounts for 3-5% of all cancers of the pelvic organs in men, and among the male audience of the earth this dangerous malignant and insidious disease takes third place and occurs in every 8th person
The doctor will be able to properly treat prostate cancer when establishing the stage of development and course of the disease. Prostate cancer of the initial stages using modern methods can be cured by 95-99%, provided there is no metastasis.
The stages of prostate cancer are determined by the size and aggressiveness of the tumor, the spread of metastases. All these aspects are taken into account and described by modern classifications: the international TNM system, the Gleason sum / scale (describes the degree of aggressiveness of the cancer), the level of PSA in the blood (shows the growth of the tumor marker in the blood - a specific protein of the PSA), the Juite Whitemore system.
It's important to know! Oncomarkers refer to substances produced by tumor cells from the moment of their development. With any oncological pathology, these special proteins are isolated from blood or urine. Their level can determine the stage, a possible relapse of the disease or the effectiveness of treatment. It is by the level of PSA (PSA) of the prostatic specific antigen that determines oncology of the prostate.
T is the size of the primary tumor:
- Tx - the primary tumor cannot be determined,
- T1 - the tumor is not determined by ultrasound and rectal examination with a finger:
- T1a - a neoplasm is determined by chance when removing prostate adenoma, a histological examination indicates the presence of 5% of cancer cells,
- T1c - a neoplasm was discovered accidentally when the prostate adenoma was removed, a histological examination revealed more than 5% of cancer cells,
- T1c - the tumor is diagnosed when performing needle biopsy due to the high level of PSA in the blood.
T2 - the tumor is limited to the capsule and is located inside the prostate gland:
- T2a - less than half of one prostate lobe is affected by a tumor,
- T2v - the tumor affects more than half of one lobe of the prostate,
- T2c - both lobes of the prostate are affected.
T3 - cancer formation is outside the capsule of the prostate:
- T3a - one- or two-sided spread of cancer formation outside the capsule, not reaching the seminal vesicles located on the sides of the prostate and responsible for ejaculation,
- T3b - cancer formation reached seminal vesicles.
T4 - the tumor has spread to nearby tissues and organs and is located on the neck of the bladder, the external sphincter of the urethra (muscle that controls urination), the rectum, the muscle that raises the anus or pelvic wall. Seminal vesicles are not injured.
N-regional lymph nodes (located in the pelvis or below the bifurcation of the common iliac arteries). The side of localization of regional metastases does not matter for category N:
- Nх - it is impossible to evaluate regional LUs,
- N0 - no metastases in regional LN,
- N1 - metastases found in regional LN.
M - distant metastases:
- MX - there is no way to determine metastases,
- M0 - there are no distant metastases,
- M1 - distant metastases were detected:
- M1a - affected LU,
- M1b - metastases are found in bone tissue,
- M1c - metastasis in distant organs (kidneys, lungs, liver).
The stages are indicated by the letters A, B, C, and D. The first two stages A and B are considered treatable. The last two C and D treatments can withstand, but the prognosis will be slightly optimistic.
Stage A is the earliest, has no vivid symptoms, the cells do not go beyond the prostate.
- A1 - characterized by good differentiation of cancer cells
- A2 - is characterized by moderate or poor differentiation of cancer cells in several areas of the prostate.
Stage B - the tumor does not extend beyond the prostate, the doctor can palpate it, the PSA level will be increased.
- B0 - with an increased level of PSA, the tumor is not palpable and is in the prostate.
- B1 - one lobe of the prostate is affected and one small tumor is found.
- B2 - one tumor in one lobe of the prostate or one tumor in each lobe of the prostate of extensive growth was seen.
Stage C - cancer cells germinate the capsule (membrane) of the prostate and affect the seminal vesicles and / or adjacent organs.
- C1 - the tumor is visible outside the capsule of the prostate.
- C2 - the tissues of the oncological tumor blocked the lumen of the urethra or exit into the bladder.
Stage D - metastasis is noted in regional lymph nodes, in distant organs and tissues (liver, lungs, bones).
- D0 - metastases are clinically detected, as well as elevated PSA levels.
- D1 - metastases in prostate cancer in regional lymph nodes.
- D2 - damage to distant lymph nodes, organs and tissues was detected.
- D3 - after treatment, metastasis continues.
How to establish the stage of tumor development
The stages of prostate cancer are established by combining the diagnosis of the TNM system with Gleason's Sum, taking into account the Juite-Whitemore system and analysis of the PSA level in the blood. The initial stage is designated by the Roman numeral I, the second easily complicated stage by the numeral II, complicated by the numeral III and the most difficult with metastasis to distant organs and the LN by the numeral IV.
First degree of cancer
The primary symptoms of prostate cancer of the 1st degree, the patient may not notice. The flow of urine becomes weak and its quantity decreases. There will be a burning sensation in the urethra and difficulty urinating. The probability of developing cancer is 18-21%, because the PSA content in the blood is on average 2-3.5 μg / l in men of young and middle age.
Important! A rare symptom may be blood in urine or semen.
If metastases are absent, then there is a chance to cure prostate cancer of the 1st degree, life expectancy for 5 years will be 96-99%.
Treatment for stage 1 prostate cancer is carried out by four main methods:
- Expectant. The doctor monitors the rate of spread of cancer in elderly patients. Treatment is not carried out in the absence of pain symptoms. If the cancer moves, then treatment is prescribed.
- Removal of the prostate before metastasis and the spread of cancer cells to other tissues and organs. Perform a prostatectomy. If the nerves around the prostate are affected, then impotence can occur.
- Radiation (radiation) therapy to reduce the tumor, slow its growth and destroy cancer cells. A side effect of the treatment is fatigue and nausea in patients.
- Hormone treatment to lower the levels of androgens (male hormones), which favor the growth of cancer. Hormones slow down the spread of cancer and reduce cancer.
What is prostate cancer?
Prostate cancer - This is a malignant neoplasm that develops from the cells of the prostate gland.
The anatomy of the prostate. The prostate is an endocrine gland that is located in men in the pelvic area, its average size is 3–4 cm. Due to the fact that the prostate is located around the urethra, its enlargement, provoked by a cancerous tumor, causes urethral function disorders.
The prostate gland is located inside the capsule of connective tissue, contains elastic septa that separate the prostatic glands. It consists of three parts - right, middle, left. In this gland, prostatic juice is produced, it is excreted with a reduction in smooth muscle. The prostate participates in sperm production processes, increases their activity and vitality, is responsible for the quality of sperm and its excretion. It plays an important role in the implementation of male sexual function.
The functions of the prostate. For a more accurate understanding of the nature of the disease, it is necessary to understand in detail the basic functions of the prostate gland. The main features of the functioning of the prostate are that it produces a certain part of the seminal fluid. According to experts, we are talking about more than a third of the total. She is also responsible for participating in the process of seed eruption.
Another key function of the prostate is that it is most directly related to the ability of any of the men to retain urine. That is why this gland is given great importance for the health of the male body.
Second degree of cancer
Patients feel discomfort and pain in the genitourinary organs during urination and in the perineum during sex. Ejaculation is also painful, the level of PSA in the blood increases 6.0-7.9 ng / ml. Such indicators can be with benign prostate diseases, but the likelihood of developing cancer is up to 30%.
If prostate cancer of the 2nd degree is established, the prognosis for cure before metastasis is 80-90%. If the cancer of the prostate of the 2nd degree is adequately treated, the life expectancy for 5 years promises to be 85-95%.
Grade 2 prostate cancer is treated with minimally invasive techniques (laparoscopic prostatectomy), including a da Vinci robot. If the patient is not allowed to use surgical techniques, then treatment of grade 2 prostate cancer without surgery will consist of irradiation and brachytherapy using two main technologies: placing a low-dose or high-dose miniature radioactivity source in the prostate.
With high-dose brachytherapy, a high-dose radioactive substance - irridium-192 is introduced into the prostate for 8-10 minutes. To install the capsule use puncture needles. After the procedure, they are removed from the body. Repeat the procedure 2-3 times every 6-7 days. At the same time, remote radiation therapy is performed on the border areas of the prostate and on affected LUs with progressive carcinoma. The tumor is completely destroyed, and patients are cured in 70-85% after treatment with combined treatment.
In case of low-dose brachytherapy, using tiny or general anesthesia, tiny metal particles (“grains”) are inserted with hollow needles, where they remain constantly in the prostate for targeted action on the tumor tissue. The whole procedure takes 60-90 minutes. After a month, the position of the particles is monitored by CT.
Radioactive iodine-125 is introduced into the prostate with a gradual decrease in activity. After 2 months, she already makes up half the dose that was initially administered. After the procedure, 98% of patients can live more than 10 years.
Low-dose implantation is administered to patients with localized stage T1c or T2a carcinoma if:
- PSA has a value of less than 10,
- Gleason's number ≤6, and the prostate volume was less than 50 ml.
It is contraindicated to conduct brachytherapy with an extremely small prostate gland, which happens when part of it is removed due to adenoma. Brachytherapy gives fewer complications than radical prostatectomy.
After 2-3 weeks, the patient may complain of urinary retention and burning during urination, urinary incontinence (in 4% of cases). Potency is impaired in 15% of cases with low-dose implantation, in 20-40% of cases with high-dose implantation.
Even so, these figures are lower than after the operation. Therefore, the advantage of brachytherapy is its minimal invasiveness. In a patient, professional and social activity is restored in 2-3 days.
Important! With brachytherapy, you can choose the optimal dosage, purposefully act and control the tumor response. The quality of control here is higher than during remote irradiation of the tumor, and there is less risk of injury to neighboring organs: the bladder, rectum and urethra.
It is contraindicated to treat prostate cancer with brachytherapy in patients:
- with a minimal and disappointing forecast for 5 years,
- with the presence of severe violations of the outflow of urine (with a speed of urine of 10 ml / s or less and a volume of urine of 100 ml).
How many live with prostate cancer?
In this, as in any other case related to oncology, it is very important to detect the disease as soon as possible. However, the prognosis is most often unfavorable due to late detection and the occurrence of a significant amount of metastases in the early stages. So, approximately 90% of cases of prostate cancer are detected at the third or fourth stage.
Therefore, answering the question of how much they live with prostate cancer, we can say that it all depends on the stage of the disease at which treatment was started. A radical type prostatectomy, which was performed at an early stage of oncology in patients aged less than 70, is a guarantee of 10 or even 15 year survival. In general, after a timely treatment course, the five-year survival rate in the first or second stage is 85%, the third -50%, the fourth - not more than 20%.
Prostate cancer metastases invade distant areas due to the spread of cancer cells through the blood and lymph vessels. Most often, pelvic pain, swelling of the legs in the ankle or foot area with prostate cancer means an increase in the number of metastases and that the cancer has become aggressive.
Prostate Cancer: Symptoms
One of the reasons why treatment for prostate cancer is difficult is the slow development of the disease. Signs of prostate cancer at an early stage can be seen only with a focused study, because regular diagnosis becomes the key to successful treatment.
Prostate cancer (prostate carcinoma) is a malignant tumor that develops from the cells of the prostate gland.
Very often, an oncological disease is detected by chance, during examination as a result of treatment for a variety of reasons.
As a rule, if prostate cancer in men is diagnosed in the first stages, the symptoms usually turn out to be associated with an increase in the size of the prostate gland itself:
- urination disorders caused by pressure of the prostate on the bladder. This may be incontinence, increased urge (up to 20 times a day), difficulty urinating, burning in the urethra, pain in the lower abdomen, etc.,
- squeezing the urethra with many consequences (difficulty starting urination, decreasing the pressure of the stream, the feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder),
- a decrease in the tone of the bladder, causing the need for tension of the abdominal press during urination.
If prostate cancer is not detected in time, the symptoms will be more pronounced:
- pain in the lumbar region caused by the formation of kidney stones. This symptom is associated with a deterioration of the excretory system and the reverse movement of urine through the ureters,
- blocking the urinary canal (urine diversion is only possible with a catheter),
- complete or partial impotence (caused by damage to the endocrine glands or pressure on the nerves leading to the genitals),
- blood in semen or urine (the appearance is provoked by damage to blood vessels in the pelvic organs and in the seminal vesicles).
In the most “neglected” cases, symptoms of prostate cancer will be as follows:
- constipation (or, conversely, diarrhea) and pain during bowel movements (caused by lesions of the lower intestine),
- pain in the right hypochondrium (they are provoked by secondary metastases in the liver),
- swelling of the lower extremities and external genital organs, caused by the formation of metastases in the inguinal lymph nodes,
- pain in the lower spine and pelvic bones (with the formation of bone metastases).
At the same time, none of the listed signs clearly indicates prostate cancer: the symptoms and treatment can be very different, since another disease can become the cause. But if you are a man over the age of 35–40 years old and have not been tested for prostate carcinoma relatively recently, then the appearance of any of these symptoms is a reason to at least see a doctor.
Third degree of cancer
Treatment for prostate cancer of the 3rd degree is arranged in accordance with the aggressiveness of the tumor, indicators: PSA level, Gleason score and PSA growth rate. PSA levels are usually high - over 8.0 ng / ml. At the same time, on average, grade 3 prostate cancer prognosis for a cure promises - 50-65%.
- various types of surgical intervention,
- radiation therapy
If pathomorphological changes occurred for a long time, and stage 3 prostate cancer was treated before metastases appeared, then the tumor develops slowly, increasing by 30-31%. With the capsule and prostate sprouting, but metastases have not yet appeared and grade 3 prostate cancer has been determined, life expectancy for 5 years is predicted to be 50-60% or more. In the presence of metastases - 40-45%.
Causes of Prostate Cancer
Modern studies link the causes of prostate cancer with chronic diseases and inflammatory processes that affect the prostate and provoke pathological changes in its tissues.
Common causes of prostate cancer include:
Hormonal imbalance - since a prostate tumor is hormone-dependent, its occurrence and growth can be triggered by an increase in the levels of dihydrotestosterone and androstenedione (male sex hormones).
Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland, as a result of which blood circulation and oxygen metabolism in its tissues are disturbed,
Prostate adenoma - benign neoplasms contribute to the appearance of cells that normally do not appear in the prostate gland, they are more prone to mutation and malignancy, which provokes the onset of the oncological process,
Bacterial lesions of prostate cells and autoimmune processes damage the genetic apparatus of cells, contributing to their uncontrolled cell division and tumor formation.
Precancerous conditions, which include atypical adenosis and prostatic hyperplasia, lead to the formation of a cancerous tumor. With atypical adenosis, nodular formations appear in the center of the gland, the cells of which rapidly divide, and under the influence of mutagenic factors can degenerate into malignant. Hyperplasia is an active focal cell division with subsequent degeneration or malignancy, while the risk of an oncological tumor increases significantly.
Risk factors for developing prostate cancer are associated with a hereditary predisposition and lifestyle. Thus, the increased content of animal fats in the diet, the intake of carcinogenic substances in the body as part of tobacco smoke and alcoholic beverages, harmful conditions for the production of textile, chemical industries, welding shops and printing houses can contribute to the development of oncogenic formations. Stagnation of prostatic juice due to a sedentary lifestyle and irregular sexual activity can be a predisposing factor for the development of pathology.
Other risk factors are sexually transmitted diseases, old age, infection with retrovirus, cytomegalovirus and a depressed state of the immune system.
Stage and degree of development of prostate cancer
Usually malignant neoplasms are formed against the background of the so-called precancerous conditions:
- Atypical prostatic hyperplasia - the formation of nodules inside the gland tissue with their subsequent proliferation. The cells of nodules are distinguished by their enlarged nuclei: because of this, they are difficult to attribute to both normal and tumor cells.
- Prostate neoplasia - active proliferation of cells in nodules with a significant change in morphology. In the process of change, the tissue acquires the basic characteristics of a malignant neoplasm.
With the appearance of atypical hyperplasia, the likelihood of the formation of neoplasms increases. With neoplasia, the risk of prostate carcinoma is estimated to be very high.
If the final metamorphoses occurred and the development of the tumor went according to the malignant pattern, then in the future the cancer develops in the following sequence:
- I stage - microscopic neoplasms, the absence of clear symptoms,
- II stage - malignant formation within the prostate, dense nodes can be detected by ultrasound and when feeling through the anus,
- III stage - the tumor leaves the gland, metastatic lesions of the testes, bladder, colon, rectum. The appearance of specific symptoms,
- IV stage - an increase in the tumor in size, the appearance of metastases in the liver, lungs, bone tissue.
In the late stages of the development of the disease, the patient feels a strong breakdown on the background of general intoxication of the body. Weakened immunity can lead to the active development of concomitant diseases.
Stage four cancer
General symptoms of grade 4 prostate cancer are aggravated and characteristic:
- very frequent false urges and going to the toilet with a small amount of urine excreted,
- intermittent and painful urination with a low pressure of the stream,
- acute delayed release of urine,
- burning and the presence of blood impurities in the urine,
- pain in the pelvis giving to the back, perineum and ribs,
- lack of appetite and weight loss, which indicates metastasis.
Metastases are found in the lungs, liver, pancreas, bones and brain. A rapidly growing secondary pancreatic cancer is formed. PSA levels reach 10.0 ng / ml or more.
Treatment for stage 4 prostate cancer includes methods to maintain body functions important to the patient’s life. Applicable:
- intensified intravenous therapy, plasmapheresis, hemosorption, transfusion of blood and its components,
- operation: implantation of venous and arterial infusion port systems is performed to perform chemotherapy,
- imposition of nephrost with metastases in the kidneys,
- drainage and stenting of the bile ducts, if obstructive jaundice of tumor origin is manifested,
- in the inferior vena cava, the installation of cava filters to exclude thromboembolism,
- stenting in the superior vena cava, if there is an obstruction of tumor origin.
Important! Stage 4 prostate cancer requires constant anesthesia with modern drugs.
Completely cure prostate cancer grade 4 is not possible. But with the right treatment regimen, you can extend your life and quality of life for 5 years. If there are no concomitant diseases, and extensive lesions of organs important for life, then with grade 4 prostate cancer, life expectancy is 3-5 years - 20-30%. Of great importance is a healthy lifestyle and an appropriate acceptable healthy diet for grade 4 prostate cancer. The PSA level after removal of all available tumors and prostate can be 1.4-6.5 ng / ml.
Symptoms of Prostate Cancer
The first symptoms of prostate cancer (at an early stage of the disease) are absent, therefore it is possible to determine the presence of cancer only with a special examination - the diagnosis is carried out using a blood test for PSA (specific prostatic antigen).
The first symptoms of prostate cancer include difficulty urinating, impaired sexual function, and the presence of blood in urine and semen. The patient associates all these manifestations with other diseases, the occurrence of any of them does not mean the presence of cancerous tumors, but may be one of the symptoms.
Prostate cancer usually manifests itself when the tumor reaches a significant size and puts pressure on the walls of the bladder. As a result, a man may experience frequent urination - from 15-20 times a day and more than 2 times at night. In this case, urine comes out slowly, the stream is interrupted, there remains a feeling of overflow of the bladder. The process becomes painfully painful, there is a burning sensation, urine comes out in drops. The patient is forced to strain the press, because the tone of the bladder is weakened, in some cases, the installation of a catheter is necessary.
Incontinence and pain in the groin can also be symptoms of prostate cancer,
Swelling of the lower extremities, genitals, scrotum, provoked by metastases in the lymph nodes,
Kidney stones, pain in the lumbar region - the ureter and renal pelvis expand due to the outflow of urine in the opposite direction, which can be triggered by a cancerous tumor,
If an oncological neoplasm damages the vessels of the urethra or seminal vesicles, then there may be blood impurities in the urine and sperm,
Potency impairment occurs when the nerve endings are damaged by a cancerous tumor,
A painful dry cough indicates cancer metastasis to the lungs,
Yellowness of the skin and heaviness in the right side are symptoms of the presence of secondary tumors in the liver,
If during a bowel movement a person experiences pain, then the tumor could affect the intestines,
In the later stages of cancer, bone pain may occur when the tumor is metastasized in the bone tissue.
An increase in the intensity of all the above symptoms can be observed over several years, they appear gradually. Any of the above signs is a reason to see a doctor and undergo an examination with a urologist.
Causes of the disease and risk factors
To date, there is no 100% reliable information about the causes of cancer of the prostate. As a rule, carcinoma develops against the background of other diseases affecting the prostate and leading to malfunctions in its work.
Some doctors claim that a malignant tumor develops only on the affected gland
Oncologists most often refer to the probable causes of cancer:
- Prostatitis. With this disease, the blood supply to the gland tissues is disrupted, and the cells do not receive the necessary amount of oxygen. Against the background of oxygen starvation, neoplasms quickly turn into a malignant form.
- BPH. The presence of adenoma in the patient is an unambiguous risk factor, since the affected glandular cells are much more likely to show uncontrolled growth.
- Hormonal disruptions - a sharp increase in the concentration of androgens (testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione) in the blood.
Risk factors that increase the likelihood of developing cancer are as follows:
- age 50 years and older
- smoking and alcohol abuse,
- infectious diseases affecting the genitals,
- effects on the body of heavy metals (primarily cadmium),
- congestion caused by irregular sex life or sedentary work
Some studies also note a hereditary predisposition: in people whose fathers were carriers of special genes from the BRCA group, prostate cancer occurs 2-3 times more often.
Traditional medicine in a comprehensive cancer treatment program
Treatment of prostate cancer with folk remedies has become part of complex therapy. The basis of alternative treatment is the correct diet with diuretic products at the head: vegetable soups with herbs, salads and juices from fruits, vegetables and berries, dairy products, weak coffee and tea, decoctions of herbs and rose hips. Vegetables, fruits are useful in fresh, boiled and baked form, berries - in any form.
There should be no fatty meat, eggs, wheat bread, animal fats, fried and spicy foods on the menu. It is better to boil meat, rabbit, chicken and add to the side dish of vegetables or hard pasta, to buckwheat or rice porridge.
Note! In prostate oncology, it is important for men to control their own weight, especially with ductal and hormone-resistant forms of cancer.
Prostate ductal carcinoma is more common in overweight men. With an unhealthy diet with a lack of fiber and an excess of fat and calcium, saturated fats increase testosterone synthesis. Testosterone, as you know, promotes the growth of cancer cells, including highly malignant. Then out of 10 cases of ductal carcinoma - 9 diseases will be ductal adenocarcinoma or malignant cancer. This type of cancer begins with a cell that lines the prostate duct. The rate of its growth and spread is much faster and more active than the acinous adenocarcinoma. Cancer of this form is characterized by an aggressive course, weakly sensitive to hormone therapy. Therefore, prostate surgery and chemistry are performed after it. To prevent nausea and vomiting, medicinal herbs are prescribed.
Hormone-resistant prostate cancer is sluggish, for a long time without clinical manifestations. But it takes many lives, despite showing a good response to antiandrogen therapy with first-line hormones. At the same time, the intensity of bone pain, the level of blood PSA decreases, and regression of soft tissue metastases occurs. Unfortunately, the response to primary hormone therapy lasts 12-18 months.
In addition to surgical methods, a comprehensive program for hormone-resistant cancer includes treatment for bone pain, pathological fractures, obstruction of the urinary tract and ureters, spinal cord compression syndrome, DIC, anemia and edema.
The comprehensive program includes the following treatment for prostate cancer:
- radiation, chemistry, hormone therapy,
- surgical stabilization
- drugs of the group: taxanes, estramustins, mitoxantrons, Vinca alkaloids,
- standard therapy
- biophosphonates, steroids, analgesics,
- DIC of the syndrome - Heparin, Epsilon-aminocaproic acid, red blood cell transfusion, FFP, etc.,
- iron supplements and vitamins
- bone marrow stimulants for anemia,
- diuretics and decoctions and / or infusions of diuretic herbs for edema,
- aspen bark, medunica, microclysters from decoctions of medicinal herbs: cuffs, oregano, plantain and uterus of the pine forest, rectal suppositories.
Mushroom treatment is becoming more and more popular due to the presence of fungi in some mushrooms, such as Golovach, Winter honey, Birch chaga, Reishi, Meitake and Shiitake, Cordyceps anticancer components.
Recommended for the prevention of prostate cancer daily:
- eat dried mushroom and chew it thoroughly,
- drink a drink - Koporye tea from the leaves of the fireweed after fermentation.
The leaves of fireweed have no toxic properties and a decoction or tincture of them can be taken for a long time from adenoma and oncology of the prostate gland.
To get tea (brewing) from the leaves of the fireweed, you need to slightly wither them, then twist them into flagella until the juice is secreted. They are covered with a damp cloth and placed for fermentation for 6-8 hours in a warm place. After that, each flagellum turns black and the smell of fruit is acquired. They are cut, placed in the oven and dried at a temperature of 40-50 ° C. Such tea leaves are stored in a container with a tight-fitting lid.Brew instead of tea and drink all day without setting dosages.
Prostate Cancer Stages
You should distinguish between such concepts as the stage and degree of prostate cancer. The degree of the presented form of cancer should be considered an indicator of a clinical type, which determines the degree of morphological fluctuations in the cells of the prostate gland. That is, a cell-type study is needed, for example, a biopsy. It is she who makes it possible to determine the diagnosis literally at the first degree of the formation of the disease.
The stage of prostate cancer determines the increase in the size of the tumor formation and the further growth of the lesion. The identification of the stage is no less important than the degree of the disease, because it makes it possible to accurately determine what exactly happens with the tumor, and whether there are metastases.
Methods for diagnosing prostate cancer
To effectively diagnose prostate cancer in men, identify the most dangerous symptoms and choose the appropriate treatment, use the following methods:
- palpation - examination of the prostate through the anus by palpation. Allows you to identify an increase and changes in the structure,
- determination of the level of PSA (specific antigen),
- biopsy (indicated for tumor detection and elevated PSA levels).
When determining the configuration of a tumor for surgical intervention or radiation therapy, methods of computed and magnetic resonance imaging are also used.
Therapy for cancer of the prostate
Treatment of prostate cancer can be carried out according to several schemes:
- Surgery until recently was the main technique. During the operation, the entire malignant prostate is removed, in addition, adjacent tissues and closely located lymph nodes are subject to removal. The effectiveness of the method is high if the tumor does not extend beyond the capsule.
- Chemotherapy - the destruction of tumors using highly toxic drugs (Paclitaxel and others). It is used in the late stages of the disease, the full course can be up to 6 months. The downside is the large number of side effects provoked by the effect of drugs on healthy tissues and organs.
Surgery to remove the prostate gland (radical prostatectomy) is one of the main methods of treating a tumor
In addition to the described methods for treating the arch, innovative solutions can also be used - immunotherapy (exposure to monoclonal antibodies), virotherapy (attack with special viruses), etc. Many of these techniques have recently been experimental, but today they demonstrate ever-increasing effectiveness.
If there are contraindications (age 70 years or more, severe diseases of the cardiovascular system, etc.), the risk of using radical methods of therapy is very high. In this case, wait-and-see tactics can be used: the growth of the tumor, if possible, is stopped by medications in combination with the treatment of symptoms.
Drug treatment aims to reduce the concentration of hormones - androgens and reduce the sensitivity of the tumor to their effects
Prognosis for prostate carcinoma
The sooner cancer is diagnosed, the more effective the treatment will be, and the lower the likelihood of persistent side effects (erectile dysfunction, urination disorders).
The proportion of patients who have lived more than 5 years after the diagnosis of prostate carcinoma directly depends on the stage of the disease:
When diagnosing prostate cancer in stage IV, the prognosis is considered unfavorable. But adequate treatment according to modern methods, together with nutrition adjustment and dosed physical activity, can increase the patient's life time to 5-8 years or more.
Prostate Cancer Prevention
Recommendations that are guaranteed to prevent the development of cancer, no.
But you can reduce the likelihood of malignant neoplasms - to do this, just follow these tips:
- Minimize the effects of carcinogens (toxins, heavy metals, radiation) on the body.
- Eat rationally. The best result is the rejection of fatty foods and a decrease in the proportion of red meat in the diet.
- Provide physical activity. Moderate exercise enhances natural immunity. In addition, they (along with regular sex life) help prevent stagnation of the prostate gland.
- Limit alcohol and nicotine.
In addition, regular diagnosis is an important factor in prevention. It is advisable for all men over 50 to undergo diagnostic procedures (ultrasound and PSA analysis) every two years. If you have been diagnosed with prostatitis or prostate adenoma, then it is advisable to carry out a diagnosis of cancer on an annual basis.
Diagnosis of prostate cancer
Even with the most minor problems with the emission of urine, it is advisable to contact a specialist in the field of urology as soon as possible. This can be not only prostate cancer, but also an adenoma, as well as inflammation in the prostate.
The primary diagnostic method is a digital, rectal examination of the rectum. This method is the simplest and makes it possible to suspect oncology. However, in the case when education is already possible to probe, this indicates that the disease is at one of the final stages. In this connection, even in the case when it is impossible to feel the formation, the patient is prescribed an additional study: a blood test for the presence of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA).
To make a more accurate diagnosis, a man can also be prescribed an ultrasound of the prostate, computed tomography, X-ray and radioisotope examinations.
The final diagnosis can be made after a biopsy of the prostate gland - with a specific needle through the perineum or rectum, the specialist takes a small part of the gland in order to conduct a study.
Prostate carcinoma (prostate cancer) can be detected at an early stage either by accident or with regular diagnostic procedures. The sooner the disease is diagnosed, the higher the chances that the development of the tumor can be stopped. But at the same time, modern methods of cancer therapy give patients good chances even with the growth of malignant neoplasms.
What is the PSA level for prostate cancer?
The cancerous tumor limited by the area of the borders of the prostate gland is often asymptomatic and does not manifest itself in any way. Therefore, for early and timely detection of only a nascent aggressive disease, men are advised to regularly undergo a test that determines the level of the prostatic specific antigen (PSA) in the blood.
The prostatic specific antigen (PSA) in the blood is a protein synthesized in the prostate gland, the normal level of which is presented in the following table:
Age of man (years)
PSA norm in blood serum
The test must be passed to men, starting at the age of fifty. And if there were cancer patients in the family, then this procedure is recommended to be started earlier.
Determining the level of specific antigen of the prostate gland correlates with its size. In the presence of a large gland, the level of PSA in the blood is high, but this is not important. A tumor can also form with a low antigen score. The antigen can be in the blood in both free and bound forms.
There is an inverse proportion to free PSA and cancer. The lower the concentration of antigen in the blood serum, the higher the likelihood that its elevated level is caused by the presence of a cancerous tumor in the prostate gland.
This dependence is presented in the following table:
The concentration of free PSA (%)
The probability of cancer as a percentage (%)
Prostate Cancer Treatment
The type of treatment for prostate cancer depends on the patient's age, state of health, stage of oncology and his wishes. Elderly men with pathologies of the lungs, heart, blood vessels and severe chronic diseases are recommended expectant tactics, since surgical intervention can do more harm to the body than a cancerous growth. In this case, it is necessary to do an ultrasound of the prostate and analysis for PSA every six months to prevent the intensification of tumor growth.
Surgical treatment of prostate cancer
Surgical treatment of prostate cancer is carried out by radical prostatectomy - a patient under general anesthesia or with epidural anesthesia is excised from the prostate gland and surrounding tissues if the tumor has spread beyond the prostate. Sometimes excision of the lymph nodes, removal of part of the tumor in nearby organs is required, then the prognosis for recovery is less favorable, chemotherapy is additionally carried out. Almost one hundred percent chance of recovery in patients whose tumor did not go beyond the connective tissue capsule.
The duration of the operation is from 2 to 4 hours, it is prescribed to patients under 65 years of age due to possible risks and complications. The incision is made in the inguinal region or in the abdomen. Modern surgical treatment for prostate cancer is carried out using a Da Vinci robot controlled by a doctor. The operation is performed without incisions through small punctures, which accelerates the healing process of tissues and reduces the number of postoperative complications, minimizing the risk of impotence and other unpleasant consequences.
Another measure to fight prostate cancer is orchiectomy - the removal of either one or two testicles.
The presented surgical intervention leads to a halt in the production of endogenous testosterone and a decrease in the growth rate and further development of malignant tumors. Intervention is preferably carried out solely on the basis of a diagnosis after a biopsy of the gland.
Intervention can be carried out not only on an outpatient basis, under local anesthesia, but also under holistic anesthesia. During the operation, such a technique is applied in which changes in the visual nature remain unnoticed (reservation of the cord, the introduction of artificial testicles).
Orchiectomy makes sense in the following cases:
the process of treatment with hormonal drugs is not possible as a result of satellite diseases that are in no way associated with malignant formation,
in the absence of the possibility of taking prescribed hormonal drugs or injections every day.
Prognosis for Prostate Cancer
The prognosis for patients with prostate cancer depends on the stage of treatment. Specialists have the concept of “five-year survival”, which allows to evaluate the success of treatment. So, for patients who went to the doctor at the first stage of cancer, the five-year survival rate is more than 90% - that is, more than 90% of people live 5 years and longer after treatment. For the second stage of cancer, this indicator is 80%, for the third and fourth - 40 and 15%, respectively.
If the patient seeks medical help at the first stage of the disease, then as a result of therapy he manages to completely restore control over the function of the bladder, sexual function, remove the tumor and restore working capacity. After successful treatment, the negative manifestations of prostate cancer are eliminated, the disease does not reduce life expectancy.
At the second and third stages, the success of treatment largely depends on the professionalism of the doctor and the state of health of the patient, his age and general well-being. Therapy takes longer, the treatment is more complicated, but the chances of success are quite large - the life expectancy of most patients after treatment is 15 years or more.
At the fourth stage of prostate cancer, the prognosis is unfavorable - rarely, any of the patients manage to live for more than seven years after prolonged combination therapy.
It's important to know! Selenium reduces the risk of prostate cancer by 63%! What foods contain selenium?