Analysis for testosterone in men and women, When to pass
Despite the fact that testosterone is produced in both women and men, it is the most important male hormone responsible for puberty and the reproductive system. It also affects nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism, regulates spermatogenesis. But, unfortunately, sometimes there is a failure, so a man has to undergo a course of treatment to restore hormonal levels. In order to take measures in time, it is very important not to miss the first changes in the body. Let's find out how to check if testosterone levels are normal and what tests need to be taken in order to measure it.
What is the validation for?
Representatives of the stronger sex, having a lack of male hormone in the blood, do not develop at all as they should: their secondary sexual characteristics are more reminiscent of women.
Therefore, boys of the pubertal period are often prescribed an androgen test to see if the improvement of the most important functions of the body proceeds correctly. But this is not the only indication for analysis, because mature men also have many problems associated with a lack or excess of testosterone.
Laboratory studies are prescribed in the following cases:
- Problems conceiving a baby.
- Post-puberty forms of hypogonadism.
- Decreased attraction to the female sex.
- Violation of the level of potency (for example, male menopause).
- Different stages of alopecia (baldness).
- Strong overweight.
- Testicular tumor.
- Purulent inflammation on the face, acne.
- Chromosomal abnormalities.
Testosterone bound is less active than free.
In men, testosterone affects:
- development of secondary sexual characteristics,
- development of bone and muscle systems,
- processes of phosphorus and nitrogen metabolism.
- The formation of the genitals.
In women, testosterone affects:
- Fat distribution
- Follicle maturation during ovulation
- Body hair growth
- Muscular system
- Mental condition.
Types of test
Testosterone is part of the androgen group. It happens combined with albumin, globulin, dihydrotestosterone, and also in its pure form, free. From here the analysis is divided into different groups, we find out what they are called:
- A study on total testosterone.
- Blood sampling for the determination of testosterone with globulin and albumin.
- Free form of the hormone.
- The luteinizing secretion has a great influence on the androgen level, so when a pathology is detected, it is often prescribed to take an analysis for LH.
Indications for testing for hormone levels
If necessary, the patient is given a general test for testosterone levels. If you deviate from the norm, you need to do SHBG - a more detailed analysis of the level of testosterone in the blood. Such a procedure is inexpensive, and you can always check the price with your doctor. Examination may be needed for such problems:
- excess weight,
- adrenal gland tumor
- male diseases - erectile dysfunction, chronic prostatitis, decreased libido,
- female diseases - uterine bleeding, persistent miscarriages, menstrual irregularities.
A gynecologist or urologist, an endocrinologist or a reproductologist can prescribe such an analysis.
To do a blood test for testosterone in men, you need to use venous blood.
Rules for preparing for the analysis:
- It is contraindicated to take a blood test within a day after an x-ray, ultrasound, fluorography, rectal or physiotherapeutic procedures.This is due to the fact that all these manipulations can change the level of the hormone.
- Before taking the test, you should inform your doctor about taking hormonal drugs or local oral contraceptives. You can donate blood only after 2 weeks of refusing these funds.
- The day before the procedure, doctors advise to abandon physical activity, alcohol and fatty foods.
- Blood should be taken on an empty stomach. Women undergo a diagnosis on the 7-8 day of the menstrual cycle.
General recommendations and advice can be obtained from a doctor who gives a referral for a blood test.
Decoding test results for testosterone
The principle of interpretation of any analysis is to compare patient data with the norm. Each laboratory uses its own unit of measurement of testosterone - nmol, ng / ml, etc.
It is worth saying that not always a deviation from the norm can be a strong problem. The thing is that the maximum concentration of the steroid is observed in the early morning, and decreases in the evening. The season can also affect the level of testosterone, for example, in the spring it is maximum, and in the winter season it drops.
In some cases, high testosterone levels do not indicate serious problems. The thing is that the level of steroid in women rises during pregnancy and taking contraceptives. In a patient of any gender, the level of a hormonal substance can be increased due to epilepsy or taking any medications.
A high level of a hormonal substance in a woman may indicate the presence of genetic abnormalities, problems of the adrenal cortex, ovarian tumor, uterine fibroids. An increased level of testosterone in the male half indicates diseases such as prostate cancer, adrenal cortical hyperplasia, and liver pathology.
To lower the concentration of the hormone in the blood in men, you need to see a doctor, since self-medication can only aggravate the situation. First of all, the patient should monitor his diet and limit the intake of fats. Vegetables and unsweetened fruits favorably affect the body, as they reduce the level of testosterone in the blood.
Normalize the hormonal system will help walks in the fresh air and a healthy lifestyle.
Low levels of testosterone in men are most often associated with age-related changes in the body, and this is considered the norm.
A very low level of the hormone can indicate the presence of cirrhosis, hormonal failure, diabetes mellitus, testicular dysfunction.
SHBG analysis must be prescribed to patients suffering from obesity or an excess of androgens. It is worth saying that deviations from the norm can occur due to malnutrition, bad habits or weakened immunity.
For women, a low level of the hormone in the blood is not a terrible problem. Such phenomena can be observed in women of mature age, in which menopause begins. But there are diseases that reduce hormone levels in women - kidney failure.
Raising low testosterone levels to a normal concentration at a young age is much easier than for older people. First of all, doctors recommend turning their attention to a lifestyle - proper nutrition, light physical activity and rejection of bad habits.
Deviation of testosterone in any direction may indicate the presence of health problems, but not always. A deficiency or excess of the hormone in the body of a woman or a man can greatly harm. Too much concentration of a biological substance leads to baldness and acne, infertility, heart pathologies and disorders of the reproductive system.
Lack of a hormone can negatively affect the cardiovascular system, lead to obesity, problems in the genital area and psycho-emotional disorders.
Medically increased testosterone levels
It should immediately be said that any medications must be taken strictly as prescribed by the doctor. Modern medicine offers many ways to raise low testosterone in the blood for men and women:
- testosterone patch
- intramuscular injections
- oral medication.
So you can see that the pharmacy sells a lot of tools and medicines to increase the level of the hormone in the blood. What kind of method for normalizing the hormonal system is decided by the doctor, coordinating the decision with the patient.
It is worth saying that such hormonal therapy is prohibited for patients suffering from cancers, since testosterone can provoke rapid tumor growth. With neoplasms, the level of testosterone on the contrary is lowered.
An analysis of the level of testosterone in the blood is necessary only as prescribed by the doctor, and not always a deviation from the norm can indicate the presence of health problems.
When is a testosterone test prescribed?
The doctor prescribes a testosterone test for suspected infertility and prostatitis in men.
Inadequate content may be indicated by signs that appear externally, for example, sparse facial hair growth, or low body weight. There are internal signs that the doctor will be able to determine after passing the test for testosterone.
A doctor can direct women to testosterone for the development of male sexual characteristics, obesity, acne on the skin and parts of the body and various gynecological diseases.
Norm of testosterone - how much?
As already mentioned above, the norm of testosterone in women and men is different.
In men, testosterone levels fluctuate depending on age:
- From the first days of life to 6 months, it is 0.30 - 10.36 nmol / l
- Up to 9 years less than 1.24 nmol / l
- From 9 to 11 years old less than 0.81 nmol / L
- From 11 to 14 years old less than 15.41 nmol / L
- From 14 to 16 years old is in the range 1.25 - 21.92 nmol / l
- From 16 to 18 years old - 5.13-27.53 nmol / L
- From 18 to 50 years old is between 8.9 and 42.0 nmol / L
- And in men older than 50 years, 8.6 - 23.4 nmol / L.
Interesting fact: The level of testosterone in the blood, in men after 30 years, decreases by 1%
In women, the values of normal testosterone levels also vary at different periods of life. But unlike men, pregnancy, the use of contraceptives in the form of tablets, the menstrual cycle, and hereditary predisposition also affect testosterone levels.
- Up to 1 year in women, the blood contains up to 2.31 nmol / l
- From 1 year to 6 years, the norm decreases to 1.22 nmol / l
- From 6 years to 11 years - 0.49 - 1.82 nmol / L
- From 11 years to 15 years - 0.84 - 4.46 nmol / l
- From 15 years to 18 years - 1.36 - 4.73 nmol / l
- In women older than 18 years, the level of testosterone is in the range between 0.31 - 3.78 nmol / l
- In pregnant women, testosterone levels are 4 times higher than normal.
- And when using oral contraceptives is equal to 0.45 - 2.88 nmol / L.
Interesting fact: In addition to age and sex, the level of testosterone is affected by the time of day (in the morning its concentration in the blood is higher) and exercise.
Analysis for testosterone in men: standards, how to take, decoding
When there is a serious suspicion of hormonal failure, doctors recommend passing testosterone test in men.
After all, the function of the reproductive system and the work of the whole organism completely depend on this androgen hormone. The lack of hormone, as well as its excess, is reflected not only in erectile activity, but also on the nature of the person.
According to the test results, the doctor determines with further therapy and gives appropriate recommendations.
What is testosterone responsible for?
Before you find out, How to pass a testosterone test to a man, you need to find out what functions this steroid performs in the body.
Most representatives of the stronger sex, faced with this problem, postpone a trip to the laboratory in the long box, because they do not consider this examination to be vital. But in vain.
Testosterone is the main male hormone that is synthesized in the testes, adrenal glands and the pituitary gland, and is responsible for:
- regulation of the normal activity of the reproductive system,
- puberty. Thanks to testosterone, the boy turns into a young man,
- development of the secondary genital organs,
- building muscle and fat mass,
- musculoskeletal system development
- sperm maturation process and their motility and vitality,
- protective functions of the body.
If androgen is produced in insufficient quantities, then these functions are violated, which affects the person’s appearance and overall well-being, therefore, analysis of the level of testosterone in men is an important procedure that cannot be ignored.
Indications for testosterone analysis
Men are recommended to check the level of testosterone with the following signs and pathologies:
- Weak muscle development
- Rare hair growth on the body and face, or lack thereof
- Breast development,
- An increase in the subcutaneous fat in the abdomen,
- The absence of a secondary sexual attribute as a change in voice,
- Erectile disfunction,
- Testicular cancer
- Pathologies of the hypothalamus,
- Pituitary pathology,
- Early puberty in boys
- Male infertility
- Decreased sex drive,
- Testicular damage
- Inherited diseases: Kalman syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome,
- Infectious diseases, such as mumps,
- Type 2 diabetes
Women are advised to check their testosterone levels with the following symptoms and pathologies:
- Benign and malignant neoplasms of the ovaries,
- Benign and malignant neoplasms of the mammary gland,
- Benign and malignant neoplasms of the uterus,
- Cystoses and polycystic ovaries
- Pituitary disorders,
- Increased adrenal gland activity,
- Decreased adrenal gland activity,
- STIs (sexually transmitted infections)
- Type 2 diabetes
- Increased activity of the sebaceous glands, as a result of this, a woman develops acne and comedones on her skin.
- Dysmenorrhea (menstrual irregularities),
- Amenorrhea (lack of a menstrual cycle),
- Female infertility
- Increased sexual activity,
- Hair loss on the head,
- Excessive body hair and face,
- Atrophy of the mammary glands,
- Rheumatoid arthritis,
- Taking hormonal drugs.
How is the norm calculated?
The level of androgen in the male body depends on many factors and remains variable until the end of life. The total indicator is from 12 to 33 nmol / L. There are several fractions of androgen, each of which performs certain functions:
- testosterone bound to albumin, occupying about 40% of the total,
- free, accounting for 1-3% of the total indicator (3.5-12 nmol / l).
They are considered to be significant, due to the ability to influence male function. The remaining 57% of the total indicator of androgen is associated with globulin, and are inactive.
This begs the question, which test for testosterone should be given to men: general or free? The specialist, depending on the evidence, gives direction individually. But in most cases, it is enough to take an analysis for testosterone total (OA). The formula for calculating it is simple:
- OA = testosterone bound to globulin + testosterone bound to albumin + free testosterone.
If the patient takes testosterone preparations, then during the course of therapy for control he periodically submits a free testosterone test.
What is analysis for?
First of all, for diagnosis:
- Male infertility
- Erectile dysfunction,
- Decreased sexual desire,
- The presence of a testicular tumor
- Problems in the field of pituitary-hypothalamic work,
- Delays / Early Puberty.
Usually a test for testosterone (general) is necessary for medical specialists to establish a diagnosis - the level of testosterone in men is measured, it is either associated with proteins, or is in free form.
When passing the testosterone test for men, the patient’s age must be taken into account:
- the highest levels of androgen in the blood in adolescents,
- by 30 years, the level reaches average values,
- after 40 years, the inactive hormone decreases by 1-3% annually,
- after a 50-year milestone, the testosterone content in the body is approaching the lower limit of the norm,
- in mature men who have crossed a 60-year milestone, the level of androgens in the blood is one fourth of the lower limit of the norm. The body no longer seeks to create offspring, therefore, it does not need large amounts of testosterone - nature took care of this.
A blood test for testosterone in men: a breakdown by age
|Age of man, years||The norm of free testosterone, PG / ml|
The correct functioning of the sexual structure - testosterone, which is considered the main hormonal element of the male body system, is directly responsible for this process.
Sexual activity of the stronger sex depends on androgen indices.
For the normal functioning of the male body structure, a certain level of this substance is needed - the pituitary gland controls the production of testosterone.
Functionality of this hormone:
- The appearance of secondary sex traits,
- Creation of organs of the sexual structure,
- Impact on metabolic processes of a nitrogenous, phosphorus nature,
- Regulation of sexual behavior.
A blood test for testosterone in men allows you to determine hormonal values, if necessary, raise testosterone in the home. The interpretation of this test shows the presence / absence of deviations.
What factors affect testosterone levels
When calculating the indicators, the general condition of the person is taken into account. Testosterone, like prolactin (responsible for lactation in nursing women) is a rather capricious hormone, the level of which is influenced by many additional factors:
- Mental health Constant stresses, nervousness, irritability contribute to the production of cortisol - the stress hormone. It suppresses testosterone and promotes its conversion to the female hormone estrogen.
- Lack of exercise. In the absence of physical activity, the level of steroids in the male body is significantly reduced. Therefore, doctors recommend their patients to exercise 3-4 times a week. For the synthesis of androgens, strength exercises are best suited (for example, lifting the barbell or bodybuilding).
- Nutrition. Products containing soy, semi-finished products, smoked meats, sweets, pastries are harmful to the male body. For their splitting, energy costs are not required, which means they quickly break down into fats. Fat is the worst enemy of testosterone. It converts it to estrogen, which means it lowers the amount of steroid in the body, causing abdominal obesity. As a result, female sex hormones in the male body become larger. The diet of men should include: meat, eggs, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, nuts, spices, honey.
- Bad habits. If much is known about the dangers of smoking, even more is said about the dangers of alcohol. The abuse of these "controversial products" is fraught with problems not only with hormones, but also with the health of other organs and systems. If a man cannot deny himself the pleasure of relaxing on a Friday night, then of all alcoholic drinks it is better to choose dry red wine. Only it increases testosterone, unlike beer and other types of alcohol. Beer contains a plant component that is close in action and composition to estrogen. Drinking beer regularly and in large quantities, everyone can notice the growth of the mammary glands and abdomen. All this is the result of the influence of the fermentation product on the male body.
- Chronic diseases and past infectious diseases in early childhood.
- The state of the immune system.
- Arterial hypertension and diseases of the cardiovascular system.To prevent sudden surges in blood pressure, many patients are forced to take antihypertensive drugs. They inhibit the synthesis of free testosterone in men.
- Athletes taking anabolic steroids to build muscle can provoke an abuser reaction - the body, regularly receiving doping, ultimately ceases to synthesize testosterone on its own.
- Diabetes mellitus and pathologies associated with malfunctioning of the thyroid gland directly affect the level of testosterone. In such cases, patients are prescribed hormone therapy.
The concentration of androgen in the blood depends on the time of day: in the morning its level is much higher than in the evening. In addition, there is a seasonal factor.
Testosterone loves sunlight, which means that by the end of summer it is much more in the body of a man than in February - March.
Given these nuances, it is recommended to take a blood test for testosterone in men in the morning. And when calculating the data, laboratory assistants take seasonality into account.
Indications for the procedure
Establishing the androgen level is possible through the external signs of a man, according to a blood test - the test result will depend on many points (diet, the presence of a stressful state, the time period of the day), it is difficult to determine the exact indicators of androgen.
The list of external signs indicating the presence of low testosterone in a man:
- Loss of muscle tone,
- Presence of irritation, depression,
- Decreased libido
- Testicular size reduction,
- Fast ejaculation,
- Frequent urination
- Breast enlargement
- The presence of osteoporosis,
- Increased sweating,
- Restless sleep
- The presence of fatigue, forgetfulness
- Mood changes,
- The presence of dry skin,
- Erectile disfunction,
- Decrease in mental abilities, memory.
The male representative must perform hormonal testing if there is a deterioration in erection, lack of sexual desire, irritation, depression, fatigue, etc.
If a man has any of the above symptoms, then he needs to donate blood to test hormonal indicators.
Rules of procedure, stages of its implementation
How to test testosterone? The change in hormonal indicators is due to the season, seasonality. Low levels of androgen - evening time period, high hormonal values - in the morning. The influence of seasonal factors: the maximum level is August / September, the minimum level is February / March.
You need to take hormone tests in the morning, while experts do not recommend the following actions:
- Meal (8 hours)
- Physical exercises 24 hours before the procedure,
- Smoking 4 hours before the test.
Obtaining the exact result of the analysis depends on the patient. Therefore, doctors do not advise:
- The use of drugs (including hormones) before the procedure,
- Implementation of FLG, ultrasound, a variety of physiotherapeutic methods - only after a day in this case, it will be possible to do an analysis,
- Alcohol, smoking, eating fatty foods, excessive exercise a day before the process.
The basis of the procedure is blood sampling from a patient's vein. The androgen level is determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay - a certain reagent is added to the blood, staining it. The color intensity indicates the exact hormonal values. Different laboratories have their own price for this test, from 1500 rubles.
When to get tested
Find out how much a testosterone test for men costs, and how to take it when you have these warning signs:
- a marked decrease in attraction to the opposite sex,
- problems with ejaculation and erection,
- testicular reduction
- frequent urination
- female type obesity (fat deposits form on the hips, abdomen and chest),
- decreased physical stamina,
- reduction of vegetation on the face, chest, armpits, legs, arms,
- enlargement of the mammary glands,
- acne, acne in a teenager,
- diagnosis of osteoporosis,
- low hemoglobin in the blood,
- violation of the water-salt balance, which leads to a deterioration in the appearance of the skin,
- impaired memory, speed of reaction, concentration of attention,
- sudden mood swings,
- chronic fatigue,
- suspected infertility.
Of course, most symptoms indicate a host of other serious illnesses associated with vascular, cardiological, nervous and mental disorders.
But in order to exclude a hormonal imbalance, the doctor will necessarily direct the patient to donate blood to hormones.
If the decoding of the testosterone test in a man is normal, then he will look for the causes of malaise in another.
Boys are advised to take an analysis in case of delayed puberty and underdevelopment of secondary sexual characteristics. With a lack of male steroids, the type of development of a young man becomes female. With timely correction and normalization of hormonal balance, pathology can be eliminated.
How to prepare
How to pass a testosterone test to a man should tell the doctor who gives the direction. Additional information can be obtained from the consultants of the laboratory where the examination will be conducted. Preparation for testosterone analysis in men is:
- refusal of physical activity and sex the day before going to the laboratory. Physical stress temporarily increases androgen synthesis, which will affect the examination result. You can show moderate activity: walk, do light work, etc.,
- the exception of drinking a few days before the test,
- quit smoking in 8 hours,
- if a person is taking any medications, inform the laboratory assistant about this,
- all drugs on which the patient’s life does not need to be excluded during the analysis. A significant deviation of the level from the true indicators is affected by hormonal drugs and barbiturates. In addition, patients need to refuse to take cardiac glycosides, antipsychotics, diuretics. They greatly lower the level of androgen, which makes the test inappropriate.
Important! Prolonged starvation, strict diets, and an increase in body temperature reduce the amount of testosterone and distort test results.
Directly in the laboratory, the patient learns how to take a testosterone test in men. Blood is donated from the vein on an empty stomach (it is allowed to drink clean water before blood sampling).
In this case, it is advisable for a man to relax, not to worry, not to be nervous. During the procedure, he may be in a lying or sitting position: it all depends on the capabilities of the laboratory where the examination is carried out.
Often, results are obtained after 12-24 hours electronically or by hand.
If the results do not satisfy the patient (perhaps he did not know in advance how to pass the testosterone test to a man correctly), then if you wish, you can repeat the test in any other laboratory that provides such services.
If you correctly conduct a blood test for testosterone in men and follow the rules of preparation, then the results will be as accurate as possible, which means that you can assign the necessary course of therapy to the patient or send him for additional examinations.
If a disease was the cause of deviations from the norm, then first of all, it is necessary to deal with its treatment. Analysis for free testosterone in men should be consistent with the norm, otherwise the doctor may suspect the development of pathologies in the reproductive system, adrenal glands, growth of neoplasms.In these cases, therapy is prescribed immediately.
So, excess of the norm, including seasonality, time, age of the patient, indicates such pathological conditions as:
- earlier puberty,
- the presence of neoplasm in the adrenal cortex,
- the development of extragenadic germ cell tumors,
- Itsenko-Cushing's disease,
- decreased synthesis of sex hormone binding globulins,
- adrenal hyperplasia.
Lack of androgens may indicate:
- Down syndrome
- chronic prostatitis
- liver failure
- Klinefelter syndrome
- Kallman's syndrome
- primary and secondary hypogonadism,
- Steinert’s disease
- retardation of puberty,
- renal failure.
How much is
An analysis of testosterone in men, the cost of which depends on several factors, is usually given in special laboratories. They set the price themselves and inform the patient about it when making an appointment. In general, the average price is:
- Ukraine - 190 hryvnias,
- Belarus - 70 Belarusian rubles,
- Russia 500 rubles.
The region plays an important role, for example, in the central regions of Russia the price is higher than in remote areas.
What to do if testosterone is below normal
If the testosterone analysis in a man is below normal, but the deviations are insignificant, then first doctors recommend normalizing the hormonal balance at home without taking medication. For this, the patient needs:
- have sex regularly
- eat more protein foods
- have a good rest
- give up bad habits,
- do sport.
If these efforts are insufficient or significant deviations from the norm, hormone therapy is prescribed. Only a specialist determines which drugs should be taken, and in what quantity. Often prescribed testosterone preparations:
- plasters (Androderm),
- injection (testosterone enanthate),
- gels (Androgel, Testim),
- tablets and capsules (Tribestan).
At the first alarming symptoms, indicating a hormonal imbalance, you need to seek medical help. If the doctor recommends an examination, it is necessary to know in advance how the test for testosterone in men is tested. With a timely visit to a specialist, you can avoid the development of many pathologies and serious consequences.
Where to test for testosterone?
There are two ways: either to conduct the procedure for a fee in a private laboratory, or in the direction of a doctor in a state clinic.
In the second option, the analysis for the subject is completely free, and is prescribed on the basis of patient complaints and after examination by the attending physician. If your choice is limited to a private medical center, it is recommended to consider not only the prestige and cost of the procedure.
First, look for information about the equipment in this facility and whether barcoding is used. You can learn about this from the laboratory administrator. If you carry out this labeling, then the percentage of the fact that your results are confused with others is zero.
Pay attention to the sanitary conditions of the treatment room and the technique of blood sampling. For a long time, all modern laboratories do not take blood from a finger, but use vacuum tubes for venipuncture (puncture of the wall of a venous vessel with the subsequent injection of an injection needle into a vein).
Analysis prices vary and depend on the cost of reagents, maintenance and prestige of the laboratory. In Russia, the price is approximately 700 rubles.
How is testosterone tested?
As soon as you go into the treatment room, the nurse will invite you to sit on a couch or chair, put on a tourniquet above the elbow and ask you to clench your fist several times until the ulnar vein is full of blood.
After making sure that the vein is ready for venipuncture, having sterilized the future injection site, a nurse will take blood for testosterone using a syringe.
As you can see, the procedure is quite standard and there is nothing wrong with that.
Getting analysis results.
The time to receive test results for testosterone depends on the type of testosterone you have passed. You can find out the result of total testosterone on the next working day, and prepare for free testosterone within 6 business days.
So, having received a sheet with the results of the analysis by hand, you can already familiarize yourself with them and compare the obtained values with the reference indicators given in this article.
This will only give you an approximate idea of the state of your body, but you can’t make a diagnosis on your own without consulting a doctor and even less taking medications.
What does low testosterone mean?
A low level of testosterone in the blood is a signal of serious violations in the body, in the absence of external factors.
The diseases whose symptoms are a decrease in testosterone include:
- Congenital and acquired pathologies of the hypothalamic-pituitary system,
- Testicular torsion,
- Testicular cancer
- Type 2 diabetes
- Inherited diseases: Kalman syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome,
- Brain injuries and concussions,
- High SHBG (Globulin Binding Sex Hormones),
- Obesity etc.
What does high testosterone mean?
The diseases whose symptoms are increased testosterone include:
- Tumors of the hypothalamic-pituitary system,
- Syndromes of Reifenstein, Itsenko-Cushing,
- Adrenal cancer
- Breast augmentation - gynecomastia,
- Vascular thrombosis,
- Heart failure,
- Ventricular arrhythmia,
- Benign prostatic hyperplasia
- Testicular cancer, etc.
How to increase testosterone in the blood?
Firstly, you need to reconsider your lifestyle and menu. Alcohol and smoking negatively affect metabolic processes, including the production of testosterone.
Eat many times a day in small portions, this will speed up the metabolism. Pay attention to what you eat: increase your intake of proteins, carbohydrates and healthy fats, as well as foods rich in zinc, amino acid arginine, vitamins A, B, E.
Particular attention should be paid to seafood - fish contain zinc, vitamins A and E, selenium, polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Salt reduces testosterone production, so it should be limited in the diet. And of course, sports and physical activity will help you achieve your desired goal.
There is also hormone therapy, but without consulting a doctor, taking such drugs can be dangerous.
How to lower blood testosterone?
With increased levels of testosterone, pay attention to products that directly or indirectly lower the level of androgens: soy products, fresh fruits and vegetables, honey, coffee. Tea with peppermint, evening primrose and licorice broth can limit the production of testosterone.
In the case of a decrease, as with an increase, it is not recommended to take drugs that reduce male hormones without first consulting a specialist.
To reduce testosterone levels in women, as a rule, resort to drug therapy. Oral contraceptives, calcium gluconate, vitamin complexes (especially vitamin D) are prescribed.
With an increase in hormone concentration due to the presence of a neoplasm, surgical treatment or radiotherapy is performed.
Indications for testing for testosterone for men and women
The root causes of changes in testosterone levels in men can be varied. A blood test for testosterone in men is prescribed based on existing chronic diseases:
- all types of diabetes
- impotence - lack of erection,
- obesity of all degrees,
- acne, dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis,
- metabolic disorders
- violation of the process of sperm maturation,
- taking drugs
- acquired or congenital diseases of the pituitary, adrenal glands and testicles,
- alcoholic beverages
- living or working in a radiation zone,
- testicular dysfunction,
- alopecia and impaired hair growth.
The analysis reveals most of the disorders associated with the endocrine system.
A blood test for testosterone in women is prescribed in the following situations:
- recurring uterine bleeding,
- Missing menstruation
- ovarian tumor
- spontaneous abortion,
- irregular periods
- Missing ovulation
- polycystic ovary,
- an increase in the menstrual cycle up to 35 days,
- body hair for the male type of abdomen, face,
- uterine fibroma,
- breast tumor
- congenital underdevelopment of the uterus and mammary glands.
If at least one of the listed symptoms is present, then this is an alarm to control blood for testosterone.
Rules for preparing for testing
Before taking tests for testosterone, it is recommended that you first prepare. Preparation begins about a day before the expected blood donation. To obtain more accurate results, before passing the tests, it is advisable to adhere to the rules. Not allowed:
- drink alcohol-containing drinks, even in minimal doses,
- to perform heavy physical exertion, also exclude sports.
- eat fatty foods, fried, salted and pickled foods,
- smoking, a prerequisite is abstinence from smoking for at least 4 hours, including the use of hookah,
- take tonic drinks: coffee, tea, energy, etc.
Donating blood for testosterone is necessary only on an empty stomach. At the same time, the last meal should be completed no later than 12 hours before blood sampling.
The analysis is taken strictly 8-11 hours in the morning. It is during this time period that the concentration of testosterone in the blood is close to the highest value. On the day of the test, it is preferable to drink plain water without gas.
It is also forbidden to donate blood during the day after radiography, ultrasound diagnostics (ultrasound) and fluorography. Hormonal drugs are canceled approximately two weeks before the test. When to take testosterone for sure, your doctor will tell you.
Testosterone is associated with courage, masculinity, physical strength and courage. His role in the body is very important in both male and female.
The function of testosterone in the male body reflects the gender characteristics of behavior in men and, therefore, the role of androgens is considered not from the point of view of pathologies that can cause its high or low level, but from the point of view of human behavior and mood.
It affects character and makes men less emotional, restrained and able to resolve conflicts. In women, with an increase in androgens, masculine character traits are observed in character.
On which day of the cycle do I take women
Analysis for hormones always surrenders on certain days of the cycle. Women are interested in what day of the cycle to take testosterone in order to get the correct values for the study.
With a stable cycle in the absence of pregnancy, the analysis of testosterone in women is carried out on the 5-7th day.
How is analysis given?
Often prescribed and the most common way to determine the level of the hormone in the blood is a general testosterone test. Blood is taken from the ulnar vein with a disposable syringe. Subsequently, the blood combines with a medical reagent. It turns out a colored solution. The level of the hormone is determined by the intensity of the color.
Norm and deviations of total testosterone in the blood in men
Indicators of testosterone in men
What are the norms of the level of total testosterone are considered normal:
- men from 19 years to 55 - an indicator of 1.0 - 28.28 pg / ml,
- men after 55 years - an indicator of 0.7 - 21.45 pg / ml.
If the results obtained in men are deviated from the norm, the endocrinologist will prescribe an additional blood test for globulin that binds testosterone. Based on the data obtained, it will establish the presence of the disease, and select individual and competent therapy.
The level of testosterone in the blood of men and women is determined by several parameters: normal, high or low.
How to prepare?
When writing out a referral for analysis, the doctor takes into account many factors: the patient’s age, gender, bad habits, addictions and even the time of year. In order to get reliable results, a man must follow the rules for preparing for the blood donation procedure:
- You can not take the analysis within a day after other studies (ultrasound, x-ray, fluorography, etc.)
- The analysis is given on an empty stomach: 12 hours before the study you can’t eat, and it is better to refuse fatty foods for 24 hours.
From liquids, you can drink mineral and ordinary water, juices, teas and coffee are undesirable.
As for when to properly donate blood to a hormone level, this must be done in the first half of the day (up to 11 hours).
High level of hormone in the body
With an increased testosterone in men, the following types of pathology may occur:
- testicular tumor
- prostatic hyperplasia,
- Itsenko-Cushing's disease,
- the emergence of a desire to assert oneself,
- there is an increased ill-will and aggressiveness.
The norm and deviation of free testosterone in the blood in men
The norm in men of free testosterone by age is:
- age from 18 to 50 years, the indicator is 5.76 - 30.43 nmol / l,
- above 50 years, the indicator is 5.41 - 19.54 nmol / L.
Non-compliance with the norm indicates a problem in the body. Diseases that occur if testosterone free is lowered:
- prostate carcinoma,
- cardiovascular diseases.
Testosterone free decreases under the influence of the following factors:
- sedentary lifestyle,
- bad habits that reduce the quality of life,
- excess weight,
- genital injury
- stress and depression
- improper unbalanced nutrition,
Norms and deviations in pregnant women
An analysis of testosterone in women during pregnancy, especially in the second and third trimesters, yields values of free testosterone significantly higher than normal. This is due to the fact that in addition to the pregnant woman’s own organs producing testosterone, the fetal organs provide additional hormone production.
It is difficult for pregnant women to establish the exact range of free hormone, since the hormonal background of each pregnant woman is individual.
A blood test for testosterone in men and women: why donate, when and how to take these tests?
Testosterone is a sex hormone that is considered the main thing in a man. However, it is also present in the body of a woman.
In the male body, the hormone is responsible for fertility and is actively used during puberty. A testosterone test is prescribed if there is a suspicion of endocrine disruption.
A change in its level can negatively affect the functioning of internal organs and systems.
During puberty, the amount of testosterone in the body increases dramatically.Scientists were able to establish that its maximum amount in the blood is contained in the morning. The indicator decreases markedly in the afternoon. That is why it is advisable to donate blood for testosterone until 11 a.m.
The amount of hormone is different for opposite sexes. A blood test for testosterone in women shows the features of the functioning of the reproductive system. For example, its amount increases significantly during ovulation and during gestation.
A decrease is observed before menopause or in case of disruption of the endocrine system.
How to pass an analysis for testosterone depends on the need to identify its free or protein-bound state. The hormone affects the development of the fetus inside the womb. Due to it, the first androgenic signs in a young man during puberty also appear.
It helps form secondary sexual characteristics. The structure of his body and hair is changing. The hormone has a direct effect on the manifestation of secondary sexual characteristics. In the future, sexual preferences will directly depend on him. During puberty, the amount of hormones in the blood is much higher than normal.
This affects the future habits of men in the genital area.
In adulthood, a man should not experience sharp fluctuations in the amount of testosterone in the blood. In the body, it performs many functions on which health and the ability to have children are directly dependent. Testosterone affects sperm quality, sex drive and potency. Hand over for testosterone analysis should be in case of abnormalities or suspected presence in the body.
For men, a decrease in testosterone levels by 60 years is characteristic. However, in some cases, such negative changes can be observed at the age of 45 years. About half of men have negative changes in the body during this period.
In the male body, testosterone is produced in the testes. A woman is supplied with this hormone by the ovaries. The adrenal cortex is also directly involved in the production process.
Testosterone is needed by the body during puberty. Under his influence, a person forms a number of secondary sexual characteristics. The hormone is involved in protein synthesis and is responsible for the growth of bones and muscles.
Scientists have been able to establish that testosterone also affects a person’s mood.
In the body of every healthy person, there is total and free testosterone. Only 2% of the total amount is allocated to the first version of the component. The remaining 44% are permanently associated with globulin. 54% react with albumin and other protein variants.
Most often, tests for testosterone in its general manifestation are prescribed. In case of deviations, an additional SHG will be required.
Donating blood for testosterone is recommended in the presence of the following manifestations:
- there were previously adrenal gland tumors,
- the patient has acne,
A blood test for testosterone in men is necessary in the case of:
- decreased sex drive,
- chronic prostatitis
- osteoporosis and other diseases.
Analysis for testosterone in women is prescribed for:
- menstrual irregularities,
- periodic occurrence of uterine bleeding,
- spontaneous abortion
- polycystic or ovarian tumors,
Testosterone tests are prescribed by a gynecologist, andrologist, endocrinologist or reproductologist to obtain a clinical picture. It is possible to get an accurate result if a person is previously prepared for blood sampling.
A person is allowed to take hormones if an ultrasound scan, fluorography or x-ray has not been performed within a day before. Some physiotherapy or rectal examination can distort the data.The attending physician should also be warned about taking hormonal drugs.
A gynecologist should know about a woman taking contraceptives in tablets, in the form of a gel or ointment. If there is a serious threat to the patient's life, then it is better to refuse to use these means of preventing an unwanted pregnancy.
After stopping the testosterone analysis in women is possible only after two weeks.
Preparation a day before the analysis should include the rejection of any physical activity. It is also important to refrain from drinking alcohol and smoking.
Fatty food plays a negative role, so it is completely excluded from the diet. Blood is donated only on an empty stomach until 11 a.m.
Scientists were able to establish that during this period testosterone reaches its maximum value in the body.
A blood test for testosterone in women is informative only on the 6-7th day of the cycle.
Features of the procedure
To obtain accurate results, you will need to donate blood from a vein to testosterone. The fence can only be made in a specialized laboratory. Manipulation is performed by a specialist in this matter. It is allowed to use a disposable syringe. As a rule, manipulation does not cause discomfort in the patient. An analysis will require a small amount of blood. The risk of deterioration of overall well-being against the background of the fence is minimized.
Norm and Deviation in Testosterone Assays
We have already figured out on what day of the cycle to take testosterone to women and how to do it for men. The interpretation of the results consists in comparing the obtained values with normal ones.
What is the difference between the indicators can only be determined by a doctor. Each laboratory uses a separate clinical slag.
To symbolize the results obtained, nmol / l, ng / ml, pg / ml are used.
For a convenient interpretation of the results, normal values are indicated immediately after the reference values. Thanks to this, the patient will be able to preliminarily independently evaluate the results.
However, far from always even a significant deviation indicates the development of a pathological process in the body. Each person is characterized by periodic fluctuations in the amount of hormones in the body.
For example, testosterone reaches its maximum mark early in the morning. In the evening it is at a minimum level.
Scientists also managed to identify seasonal fluctuations in the formation of a hormone in the human body. Its production increases significantly in spring, and decreases in winter. Jumps in the indicator are formed in the event of stress, depression or malnutrition. Testosterone levels rise amid excessive physical exertion. This change is short-term.
Blood for testosterone is taken if the patient complies with all the rules of preparation for this process.
Norm in men depends on age. Data are given in nmol / L:
- age under 18 years old - 0.2-37.67,
- from 18 to 50 - 5.76-30.43,
- from 50 years old - 5.41-19.54.
Norm in women serum testosterone is also measured in nmol / l and depends on age:
- under 18 years old - 0-4.73,
- from 18 years old - 0.31–3.78,
- during pregnancy, the hormone level in a woman's body can increase at least three times.
- during menopause, the indicator is in the range from 0.42 to 4.51.
If a woman has deviations in free testosterone, then a certain medical correction will be required. At the first stage, you should review your diet. It should not only be balanced, but also consist of healthy foods. However, if this treatment option does not give the desired result, then it will be necessary to switch to conservative methods.
To lower high testosterone, you should adhere to the following diet:
- the menu should have enough protein foods. Low-fat meats and fish have a positive effect.
- dairy products are included in the diet. Allowed to drink fatty milk and cream,
- some experts recommend sticking to a vegetarian menu,
- food can be eaten in small portions. During the day should be at least five receptions.
Self-adjustment of the hormonal system is considered not permissible. Otherwise, the risk of serious consequences for the body increases. Any deviation of testosterone from the norm is dangerous. Only a professional can work to stabilize the situation.
Why are high rates dangerous?
If free testosterone is elevated, then this does not always indicate the presence of serious diseases in the body. For women, this situation is characteristic during the period of taking contraceptives in the form of tablets.
Also, the level of the hormone rises significantly with the bearing of the fetus. Doctors fix its significant increase during treatment for epilepsy or hyperthyroidism.
However, a change in testosterone also indicates significant health problems.
Free testosterone in women rises in the presence of genetic diseases. The doctor may suspect a pathology in the work of the adrenal cortex. The situation is typical for the patient during the period of tumor development, malfunction of the ovaries, uterine fibroids.
Testosterone levels increase significantly with endometriosis and impaired pituitary gland functioning.
Testing for testosterone is recommended for men with suspected liver, prostate or adrenal cortex. The hormone increases with cancer or hyperplasia given to internal organs. The situation is dangerous, because it can lead to a lack of susceptibility of androgens and the development of pituitary tumors. Testosterone increases significantly in the body of a man during the period of taking steroids.
What is the danger of low testosterone in the body?
Analysis for testosterone in men can show low rates, which are formed against a background of age-related changes. They may well be within normal limits. However, there are cases when the decrease is significant and cannot be associated with the age of the patient.
This clinical picture is characteristic during the development of liver cirrhosis, hormonal failure and diabetes mellitus. The free testosterone index decreases in women in case of a malfunction of the ovaries. For a man, this situation is a consequence of testicular dysfunction, pathologies in the pituitary gland or hypothalamus.
It was found that free testosterone is lowered in a person who is obese or an excess of androgens. The level of the hormone can change with an unhealthy lifestyle.
The regular use of drugs, alcohol and nicotine leads to this situation. To normalize the situation, the patient is recommended to eat right. Also, the body will need to be properly maintained during the recovery period after an illness.
Additionally, it should be noted that people with Down syndrome also have a decrease in testosterone levels.
For men, testosterone deficiency threatens much more than women. In the fair sex, the hormone decreases markedly before menopause.
However, in some cases, this situation signals kidney failure. Some drugs may negatively affect the hormone.
Its decrease is observed while taking glucocorticoids, opioids and ketoconazole.
An organism works correctly if all processes in it are balanced. In the presence of negative changes, the development of serious pathologies should be suspected. This situation is often observed against the background of an incorrect lifestyle. The free testosterone index should be normal.
Otherwise, the risk of developing serious health problems increases. A testosterone test in men helps you find the cause of acne or early hair loss in time.The hormone affects the psychological state of the patient. The disorder leads to depression, infertility, suicide. The situation is dangerous due to possible complications on the heart and blood vessels.
Testosterone is also responsible for sex drive and potency in men.
Reduced free testosterone in women and men can lead to cardiovascular disease and obesity. Endocrine disorders are dangerous, because against their background there is osteoporosis, problems in the intimate sphere and mental disorders.
Your doctor will tell you when to take testosterone. Based on the results of the tests, it will be possible to correctly diagnose and select an adequate course of treatment. Timely identification of the root of the problem is a guarantee of a quick recovery and a long life.
How is blood taken?
The detection of increased or decreased levels of testosterone occurs through the patient’s blood. Blood is taken from a vein, then a specially labeled reagent is added to it. The main function of this substance: to connect with androgen and color it in a different color. According to the area of the painted surface, specialists determine the level of hormone content.
The type of analysis should also be considered. In the study of free testosterone, it accounts for only 2% of the hormone, testosterone paired with globulin is 44% of the total, the secret with albumin is about 54%.
The most common study is an analysis that measures total testosterone. As a rule, if you are going through the procedure on your own initiative and do not know what you need to take in order to determine your level of the hormone, it is better to choose it.
What is considered the norm?
When measuring androgen indices, the age of the patient plays a big role:
- for boys up to one year, the norm is considered from 0 to 17.10 nmol / l,
- from 1 year to 6 years - from 0 to 1.51 nmol / l,
- 6-11 years old - from 0.39 to 2.01 nmol / l,
- 11-15 years - from 0.48 to 22.05 nmol / l,
- 15-18 years old - from 3.61 to 37.67 nmol / l,
- 18-50 years old - from 5.76 to 30.43 nmol / l,
- 50-90 years - from 5.41 to 19.54 nmol / L.
Hormone deficiency in a teenager
A teenager at the age of 14, despite his young age, has some health problems: the doctor, after the necessary tests, found micropenia. The guy is inclined to fullness, the figure began to change in the female type - rounded hips, an increase in the mammary glands. The endocrinologist wrote out a direction for testosterone analysis. The doctor’s results were not encouraging: total - 8.4 nmol / l, free - 4.3 pg / ml. The boy was prescribed a course of injections of chorionic gonadotropin. After treatment, the result showed: total - 11.1 nmol / l, and free - 5.27 pg / ml.
The endocrinologist wrote out a direction for testosterone analysis. The doctor’s results were not encouraging: total - 8.4 nmol / l, free - 4.3 pg / ml. The boy was prescribed a course of injections of chorionic gonadotropin. After treatment, the result showed: total - 11.1 nmol / l, and free - 5.27 pg / ml.
This is a normal indicator for a teenager, because during this period, the formation of secondary sexual characteristics is completed, therefore, the hormone leveled off and began to correspond to the lower boundary of testosterone in an adult male.
The endocrinologist prescribed these injections because he diagnosed a child with delayed puberty. The active substance of hCG improved the production of hormones and established the gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland.
Athlete excess androgen
In medical practice, patients suffer not only from low levels of androgen, but also from an excess of male hormone. This does not always indicate pathology, in most cases it is considered a feature of the representative of the stronger sex. A man of thirty has achieved great success in his sports career. To participate in competitions he had to use anabolic steroids in large quantities. This played a cruel joke with the athlete: the level of testosterone reached 36.4 nmol / L.
A man of thirty has achieved great success in his sports career. To participate in competitions he had to use anabolic steroids in large quantities. This played a cruel joke with the athlete: the level of testosterone reached 36.4 nmol / L.
At first, the guy did not suspect that he had health problems: a sharp and excessive hair growth of his arms, legs, and chest was not an alarm signal. Only a routine examination revealed that with further use of steroids, it can acquire serious problems, for example, alopecia, swelling of the testicles and even prostate cancer.
Reasons for deviations
Low testosterone levels are associated with the following phenomena:
- The presence of pathologies in the pituitary gland, hypothalamus,
- Genetic diseases
- Male menopause (menopause),
- Malfunction in the production of this hormone due to a malfunction of the testicles due to trauma, various viruses, alcoholism, smoking,
- The presence of chronic pathologies (diabetes mellitus),
- Age-related changes.
If the patient has low hormonal values, the doctor usually prescribes testosterone replacement therapy (CTT).
High rates of this substance say:
- About the presence of a tumor in the area of the testicles, adrenal glands producing this androgen,
- About taking anabolic steroids,
- About early puberty of unknown origin,
- On congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
The following factors also affect hormonal performance:
- Disease, alcoholism reduces the level of this hormone,
- The use of hormonal medicines reduces androgen,
- Certain medications increase hormone levels - barbiturates,
- The development of prostate cancer causes an increase in androgen.
Normalization of the hormonal level
At home, you can improve hormonal indicators, for this you need:
- Maintain a proper diet - add products with minerals and vitamin elements to the daily menu, for example, seafood, walnuts, avocados, lean meat,
- Do sport,
- Refuse harmful addictions - smoking, drinking alcohol,
- The use of tinctures from ginseng, Eleutherococcus can increase testosterone levels,
- Sleep should take at least 7 hours.
Also at home, it is possible to use certain drugs that increase hormonal levels, but only after consulting a doctor.
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Analysis for testosterone in men is common - how to donate blood, deciphering testosterone delivery, indicators of normal levels
Determining the level of testosterone in a man’s body allows the doctor to make a detailed picture of the patient’s health on the basis of the results obtained, make an accurate diagnosis, and prescribe a treatment corresponding to the clinical picture. Lack of androgen, as well as excess, affect not only potency and reproductive function, but also affect the appearance, character, mood of guys.
Role in the body of a man
Testosterone is produced by the body in the pituitary, testes, adrenal glands. Under his influence occurs:
- regulation and maintenance of metabolic processes,
- puberty changes in the boy’s body,
- development of sexual secondary features (male-type hair growth, the formation of a V-shaped silhouette, age-related increase in genitalia, voice mutation),
- muscle tissue growth,
- normal fat formation
- bone growth,
- the formation of the level of libido.
- maintaining an immune level,
- the formation and maturation of full-fledged sperm that can fertilize the egg.
The normal level of sex hormone regulates not only the sex life of a man, but also affects overall health. With an increase or deficiency of androgens, signs can be observed that only a doctor will suggest on the need for a blood test for general testosterone.
In the body, it is determined in:
- free state (2-3%),
- in conjunction with globulin (44-45%),
- in combination with albumin and other proteins (52-56%).
What determines the level of testosterone
|0-1 year||0 — 17,10|
|16 years||0 — 1,51|
|6 - 11 years old||0,39 — 2,01|
|11 - 15 years old||0,48 — 22,05|
|15 - 18 years old||3,61 — 37,67|
|18 - 50 years old||5,76 — 30,43|
|50 years or more||5,41 — 19,54|
As can be seen from the table, the index of normal blood levels has a decent take-off, which is what determines the so-called sexual constitution. Knowing how to pass an analysis for testosterone in men, having passed the study, it is easier to understand your body.
Those with a higher level have a marked libido, are active, have a typically masculine character (leaders, ambitious, assertive, sometimes aggressive).
Those whose mark is approaching the lower threshold should be attentive to their health so as not to cross the critical threshold.
With age, each person's sex hormones in the blood have a concentration lower than in young years. This is a physiological norm, the process begins at 30-40 years and continues until the end of life. every year the indicator drops by 1-3%, and then it can accelerate.
There is an androgenic pause or menopause. He does not have a certain age to start, it takes place individually, depending on the genetic predisposition, lifestyle and other factors.
Tracking the process and taking measures aimed at prolonging sexual activity is easier, understanding how they pass the test for testosterone in men.
What affects the level
Hormones are a subtle instrument of the body that sensitively responds to external and internal causes. There is no better way to find a problem, how to pass a testosterone test to a man. The decrease from normal values is due to:
- Constant stress, nervous overload. In such conditions, a natural enemy of the male androgen is produced - cortisol, which changes it to the female version (estrogen).
- Malnutrition. A large number of smoked meats, pickles, fast food, carbonated sugary drinks, store juices, confectionery, muffin, bread disrupt the body's metabolic processes. These foods contain a lot of salt, spices, sugar, simple carbohydrates. They are quickly split without requiring energy and are easily stored as strategic fat reserves. Its cells, in turn, "process" testosterone into female estrogen. Steroid reduction provokes dangerous abdominal (internal) obesity. The circle closes.
- Lack of activity. Under the influence of power loads in the body, steroid structures are intensely produced. This is best facilitated by working with weights: physical labor, strength exercises, including with your own weight (push-ups, pull-ups).
- The use of alcohol, drugs, smoking. Any of these habits is fatal, not only for potency, but for the whole body. If it is in no way possible to give up alcohol, then it is better to choose natural high-quality red wine. Cognac, beer contains plant analogues of female sex hormones that adversely affect potency.
- Immunity. Reduced by ecology, lifestyle, and acts of infection, the body’s protective reserves inhibit the brain, testes, adrenal glands, and hormones.
- The presence of chronic diseases, the consequences of previous diseases (even in childhood).
- Pathological processes in the heart, blood vessels, nervous system, thyroid gland, lungs, joints can cause a decrease in the hormone.
- Taking medications and sports supplements.
Any of these factors, and even more so their combination, has a negative effect on the human body. It is advisable to revise the lifestyle in a timely manner, to correct it in a positive direction earlier than the doctors force it to do.
When you need to pass an analysis
The direction for examination is given by the doctor: therapist, andrologist, urologist. Today throughout Russia there are private laboratories that do not need a piece of paper from a doctor and are ready to perform an analysis on total testosterone at the request (and payment) of a person who came from the street.
However, it is advisable to start by visiting the clinic. The initial examination of the doctor will help to better understand the situation, perhaps he will prescribe additional examinations that allow you to get a more complete picture of the health situation.
Or go there already having a ready-made test for testosterone levels in men. Reasons to spend it:
- profuse hair loss on the body, head, thinned facial hair,
- decreased sex drive, loss of interest in everything related to sex (including masturbation),
- problems during intercourse (penile lethargy, difficulties with the appearance, retention of an erection, premature ejaculation),
- growth of mammary glands, the appearance of fat in the "female" places - hips, buttocks,
- frequent urge to empty the bladder, especially at night,
- resizing of the scrotum, penis,
- constant fatigue, accompanied by sleep disturbances, difficulty falling asleep, insomnia,
- sudden mood changes
- outbreaks of aggression or depression,
- a history of osteoporosis,
- problems with conception,
- the appearance of acne, high oily skin, acne in adulthood.
Any sudden changes in the state of health, behavior should not be ignored. The sooner the examination is completed, the faster it will be possible to identify the cause that violates the production of the hormone and eliminate it with minimal consequences.
How to pass a testosterone test in men
The accuracy of the result will depend on the preparation. Usually, the doctor, giving out a referral, tells the patient how to test for testosterone in men, what can and cannot be done the day before. The standard list includes:
- Lack of sexual contact and physical activity 24 hours before blood sampling.
- Notification of a doctor about taking medications, sports supplements in advance and may temporarily abandon them.
- “Prohibition” for 4-7 days.
The last cigarette is allowed no later than 8-10 hours before taking the test. Venous blood is taken in the morning when the hormone level is highest. The result of the study is provided after 12-24 hours.
Today, there is no standard technique for blood testing for male androgen, several different schemes are used.
To obtain the most reliable result, it is recommended that after a time pass the testosterone analysis again in the laboratory using a different approach.
Treatment for hormone deficiency
Passing an analysis for testosterone in men is part of the matter, be sure to strictly comply with the doctor's recommendations aimed at restoring hormonal balance.
With slightly reduced, overestimated indicators, it is worth adjusting the diet, mode of work and rest, paying attention to physical education, giving up gatherings for a cigarette and a glass, and supporting the body with vitamins so that over time everything returns to normal.
Dietary supplements give good results at a low level, for example, the Vector of Solomon, the Hammer of Thor, Panta maral. In order not to fall for a divorce, you need to purchase drugs that have been tested by time and people.
In the case of a more serious deviation in any direction, the doctor may prescribe medication to the above measures.
It is important to remember that these medications belong to the group of hormones and it is unacceptable to prescribe them yourself or adjust the dose and timing. With an identified imbalance, you will have to take testosterone more than once.
After undergoing the treatment process, you will need to clearly confirm that the measures bring the expected result and the person is recovering.
Testosterone analysis will be a good contribution to the treasury of health and longevity for anyone who wants to extend their active sex life, stay healthy, young, active.
After 40 years, it is advisable to visit the andrologist or urologist every year for routine examinations and the timely identification of possible pathologies.
Together with this, it will be useful to donate blood to control the level of androgen.
Analysis for testosterone in men - indications for administration, rules for preparation and delivery, decoding of results
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If there are serious suspicions of hormonal imbalance, doctors recommend that men take a testosterone test. The function of the reproductive system is completely dependent on this substance.
The lack of androgen hormone, as well as its excess, affects not only the erectile function, but also the nature of the person, his general well-being and appearance.
According to the test results, the doctor prescribes further therapy and gives the patient appropriate recommendations for normalizing hormonal levels.
What is testosterone in men
This is the main male hormone that is produced in the testicles and is responsible for masculine (male) physical characteristics. Despite the fact that testosterone is an androgenic substance, it is also present in the blood of women.
Most of the hormone is produced by special endocrine tissues (Leydig cells) in the testes, to a lesser extent it is produced by the adrenal glands.
In men, testosterone affects the development of secondary sexual characteristics, including hair growth on the face, chest, in other areas of the body, muscle development, coarsening of the voice, etc.
For the healthy functioning of the male body, a certain level of the hormone is needed, which is involved in metabolic processes and affects physiological functions. The pituitary gland supports testosterone levels - a brain appendage located on the lower part of the organ.
If the hormonal level decreases, the pituitary gland starts the production of releasing factor - a substance that, when it enters the bloodstream, acts on the sex glands, transmitting a signal of a violation, and they begin to produce testosterone.
The hormone androgen has the following functions:
- regulates sexual behavior,
- participates in the formation of genital organs,
- affects phosphorus and nitrogen metabolism,
- stimulates the development of secondary sexual characteristics.
The production of the substance is stimulated and supported normally by the luteinizing hormone (LH) produced by the pituitary gland.
Testosterone functions according to a negative feedback system: with an increase in its amount, the LH index decreases, as a result of which the production of the androgen hormone slows down.
Reduced testosterone levels lead to an increase in LH production, this stimulates the production of testosterone.
The testosterone level varies depending on the period of the day: in the morning (4-8 hours) reaching its maximum concentration and greatly decreasing in the evening hours (at 16.00-20.00). The concentration of the androgen hormone in the blood, in addition, increases after exercise. With age, the indicator naturally decreases. The norm of testosterone in men is shown in the table.
|Up to a year||0-17,10|
|1-6 years old||0-1,51|
|6-11 years old||0,39-2,01|
Causes and symptoms of deviations
The concentration of the androgen hormone in a man’s blood depends on a number of factors, including heredity, sports, nutrition, lifestyle (the presence / absence of proper rest, mobile or sedentary work, etc.). The indicator may decrease for the following reasons:
- diseases of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland,
- male menopause (menopause),
- genetic pathologies
- age-related changes
- failure at the hormonal level due to the functioning of the testicles (due to trauma, alcohol use, smoking, virus infection),
- chronic diseases such as diabetes,
- slowing down the process of puberty,
- chronic prostatitis
- Down syndrome, Kalman,
- dystrophy of the myotonic type (underdevelopment of muscles),
- gonadal dysfunction,
- liver or kidney failure,
- uremia, cryptorchidism.
Even minor stresses, decreased immunity, and other factors can affect the hormonal level. As a rule, after stabilization of a person’s condition, the hormonal background returns to normal. Signs that testosterone production in men have decreased are:
- excessive sweating
- lack of sex drive,
- lower bone density, as a result of which a man is more susceptible to fractures and injuries,
- rare hair growth on the face, in the armpits, on the pubis,
- increase in body weight and volume of mammary glands,
- soreness in joints, muscles,
- decreased mental ability,
- dry skin
- sleep disorder
- chronic fatigue,
- frequent mood swings, depressions,
- testicular size reduction
- erectile dysfunction,
- premature ejaculation.
An increased amount of the androgen hormone can have various causes, including exogenous (external) and endogenous (internal). The provoking factors due to which men can increase testosterone levels are as follows:
- taking medications for muscle development
- genetic predisposition
- unbalanced meals
- lack of rest / sleep,
- bad habits,
- psycho-emotional, physical overload,
- prolonged lack of sexual contact,
- metabolic disorders, the presence of neoplasms (including testicular tumor),
- pathological processes in the adrenal glands or gonads,
- liver disease
- Itsenko-Cushing, Reifenstein syndromes (absolute resistance to androgens),
- congenital hyperplasia or dysfunction of the adrenal cortex.
With increased hormonal levels in men, body weight can increase even against the background of a lack of appetite. Among the main symptoms of an increase in testosterone, andrologists include these:
- sharp jumps in mood
- irritability, aggressiveness,
- sleep disorders (daytime sleepiness, insomnia),
- decreased attention span,
- increased libido
- increase in blood pressure
- growing weakness
- memory impairment
- frequent headaches
- memory impairment
- skin problems (seborrhea, acne),
- enhanced hair growth on the body,
- baldness of the head
- premature ejaculation,
- pain during ejaculation, urination.
Why do I need a testosterone test?
Blood is drawn from a vein by a qualified laboratory technician. For this purpose, use a disposable syringe. As a rule, the patient does not experience discomfort, since the amount of material for the study is very small. A testosterone test in men is used to diagnose such conditions in men:
- decreased sex drive,
- erectile dysfunction
- delay or early puberty,
- disorders of the pituitary gland, hypothalamus,
- tumors in the testicles.
The level of the androgen hormone in the body depends on many factors and can change throughout life. There are several fractions of a substance, each of which plays a specific role:
- free testosterone is 1-3% of the total (3.5-12 nmol / l),
- androgen bound to albumin occupies about 40%.
These fractions are considered the most significant due to their ability to influence male function. The remaining 57% of the total amount of the hormone is associated with globulin and is inactive.
What test for testosterone do you have: free or general? The endocrinologist gives an individual direction to the study. Nevertheless, as a rule, they recommend taking tests for total testosterone (OA).
The formula for calculating it is as follows: testosterone associated with globulin + hormone associated with albumin + free androgen.
The direction for the analysis is given by the endocrinologist, while monitoring the hormonal level is extremely important for men in any period of sexual formation. Young men under the age of puberty should take a blood test to detect false or true sexual characteristics in the body. For adult men, a test is prescribed when the symptoms of a specific pathology appear.
A blood test for testosterone in men allows you to find out the type of development of a particular patient. If the level of the androgen hormone is greatly reduced, the body is reorganized into a female type of development. Experts identify several factors, in the presence of which a blood test should be prescribed. These include:
- infertility symptoms
- imbalance of sexual functions,
- chronic prostatitis
- excessive sexual desire or lack thereof,
- severe baldness, obesity,
- decreased albumin
- chromosome type diseases,
- the development of osteoporosis,
- the appearance of intense acne,
- swollen testicles
- malfunctioning of the pituitary gland.
Testosterone test procedure for men
The amount of androgen hormone varies according to circadian rhythms, the indicator depends on the time of year. The highest level is in the morning, and in the evening the volume of testosterone reaches a minimum.
If we consider seasonal factors, then the hormonal level in men rises in August-September, and in February-March it decreases significantly. Based on this information, a blood test is prescribed for the first half of the day.
Seasonality is partially taken into account.
Men should adhere to certain training rules to ensure the most reliable analysis results. Before conducting the study, the patient must:
- abandon physical activity in 1-2 days,
- avoid stressful situations
- give up cigarettes a couple of hours before the procedure, give up alcohol for three days,
- do not eat until blood sampling for 6-8 hours,
- stop taking medications (barbiturates, cardiac glycosides, antipsychotics, diuretics),
- do not do ultrasound, X-ray, other studies with contrast,
- for a couple of weeks, keep a balanced menu and monitor your own health (fever and diet with limited nutrition will ensure the deviation of the hormone androgen from the norm).
A low voice, well-developed muscles, bald patches on the head and an abundance of hair on the body are signs of a man who has more than the normal amount of free androgens in his blood. Excess substances are often found in adolescents.
During puberty, this does not necessarily lead to diseases, and mature adults of the stronger sex suffer from such hormonal disorders.
An increased level of androgens may indicate the presence of such pathological conditions:
- neoplasms in the adrenal cortex,
- reduction in the synthesis of sex hormone binding globulins,
- Itsenko-Cushing's disease,
- adrenal hyperplasia,
- testicular tumor
- Stein-Leventhal syndrome,
- idiopathic hirsutism (increased body hairiness).
A low indicator of the androgen hormone is a characteristic sign of many disorders in the body of a man. Such a deviation can develop with a long diet or with a vegetarian diet. In adolescents, this phenomenon indicates a slowdown in puberty. In adult men, low testosterone indicates:
- chronic prostatitis
- Down syndrome
- muscular dystrophy,
- genital dysfunctions,
- Kalman syndrome
- hypogonadism (testicular failure),
- uremia (autointoxication that develops with renal failure),
- cryptorchidism (undescended testicle in the scrotum),
- hepatic, renal failure.
You can take the test in any laboratory - private or public. The research methodology remains the same, only the cost of the procedure will differ. Pricing is influenced by the level of the research center, its technical equipment and the pricing policy of a particular institution. In Moscow, the cost of analysis varies, examples of prices are shown in the table below.
|Does not hurt||330|
|DNA Clinic +||400|
|Endocrinological Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences||600|
How to normalize blood testosterone levels in men
If the level of androgens increased due to the use of certain drugs, to normalize the condition of the man, you just need to cancel their intake.
The same is the case with a short-term physiological increase in the concentration of the hormone - therapy is not necessary, since the volume of testosterone normalizes when the provoking factor is eliminated.
To normalize the hormonal level of a man, you should adhere to such recommendations:
- the diet of men should include eggs, coffee, herbal decoctions (with mint, hops, licorice, clover), fresh fruits and vegetables, cheeses, berries, herbs, linseed oil, seafood, honey, fat milk, nuts, avocados,
- starchy foods, red meat,
- the daily regimen should be correct: at least 6 hours are allotted for sleep, meals are taken according to a schedule,
- it is recommended to normalize sexual activity, make it regular,
- if there is excess weight, they get rid of it through sports, reducing the total daily calorie content of food,
- it is necessary to avoid stress, overwork (physical and psycho-emotional),
- it’s important to give up bad habits,
- a man needs daily easy physical activity - walking, cycling, jogging,
- with a high level of androgens, hormone therapy using luteinizing hormone analogues that suppress the pituitary gland activity may be necessary.
Attention! The information presented in the article is for guidance only. Materials of the article do not call for independent treatment. Only a qualified doctor can make a diagnosis and give recommendations for treatment based on the individual characteristics of a particular patient.
Testosterone test in men
A blood test for testosterone in men allows you to understand the state of hormonal balance in the body. If the amount of androgen is much higher or lower than normal, then a man's immunity decreases and problems with reproductive function begin.
The results of the study help to understand the causes of excess weight gain, rash, and baldness. They will help identify hereditary pathologies that lead to impaired maturation, make it clear why infertility begins or libido decreases. What tests need to be passed and what are the functions of androgen in the body?
What is the hormone responsible for
In the main, androgen binds to proteins in the human body, and only a small part of it is in a free state.
Its action begins even in that period when a person is in the mother’s womb. And in adolescence, he is responsible for the appearance of secondary signs of growing up and libido.
Because of it, the guys break their voice, the growth of hair on the skin begins to accelerate, sweating intensifies.
It promotes the production of the hormone of joy (serotonin), is responsible for the formation of bone and muscle tissue. In the female body, testosterone is also present, but in a smaller amount than in the male. If its norm is exceeded, then the girls begin acne, hair grows on the body.
Another important function of the hormone in the male body is to enhance sexual function, attraction to women and improve male strength. After 25 years, the amount of androgen in the body decreases. This phenomenon should not be scared, because this is a normal physiological process.
Why do we need tests for testosterone in men and how to take it? Before analysis, you can not drink liquid and eat at least 8 hours before visiting the laboratory. Testing for testosterone can be done from 9 a.m. to 11 a.m., otherwise the medical institution may refuse to accept the patient.
In order for the result to be correct, it is necessary to make the following preparations for analysis:
- Ultrasound, fluorography, x-ray, physiotherapy should be carried out no less than a day before the testosterone examination,
- The intake of hormonal drugs is canceled 2 weeks before the tests for male androgen,
- You can’t drink alcohol, smoke, eat fatty foods and overload the body with sports 24 hours before the test on the eve of the test.
What is the correct analysis? Take blood from a vein with a sterile instrument. The procedure is done by a highly qualified specialist.
How to check for testosterone levels? Determining the level of androgen occurs using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The reagent binds to androgen and stains. Based on the color intensity, the doctor determines the amount of the hormone.
If the patient's indicators are exceeded, tumors of a benign and malignant nature can develop, the production of globulins decreases. A person can suffer from Itsenko-Kushenko disease. If the norm is exceeded in boys, then sexual development is not quite right and premature.
With a reduced level of the hormone, chronic prostatitis can begin, problems with the functioning of the testicles begin, kidney pathologies occur, as well as uremia. Such men quickly gain weight.
Often, such an analysis is confirmation of congenital chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome or Klinefelter.
Hormone Reducing Factors
Existing deviations are often caused by the individual characteristics of the man, his sex life, nutrition and other factors.
Negatively affect the content of androgen in the body:
- Sedentary lifestyle,
- Stress, apathy and depression,
- Traumatic factors
- Bad habits,
- Chronic diseases
- Decreased immunity.
How to restore hormone levels
For this, a man needs to consult a doctor (endocrinologist and andrologist). He is prescribed medications, for example, Sustanon, Andriol, etc.
To improve hormone production, a gel called Testim is often used. Another effective remedy: Testosterone suspension.
These medicines are used only after the appointment of a doctor. In addition, you can increase the level of androgen by taking herbal tinctures, for example, ginseng or golden root.
A man who is on treatment needs to get enough sleep, because the hormone is synthesized in the phase of deep sleep.
It has been observed that men who suffer from sleep disorders tend to have low levels of androgen. Doctors say you need to sleep more than 7 hours a day to maintain normal levels of the hormone in the body.
And in the room where the man is resting, there must be complete darkness and silence.
It is also important when a man maintains his physical activity. Strength exercises are best suited. Patients should laugh more and experience positive emotions. They increase the level of androgen in the blood.
Doctors recommend completely abandoning bad habits. Such a measure will restore the synthesis of the hormone, while nicotine and ethyl alcohol block its production.
Food is also important. To maintain normal testosterone levels, the patient should eat at least 5 times a day. A man also needs regular walks in the fresh air.
It is noted that dietary restrictions and the rejection of meat and animal protein reduce the amount of androgen in the body. Proper nutrition will help maintain androgen levels in the body. To improve testosterone production, you need proper nutrition. Cheese, herbs (parsley, lettuce, dill), meat with a high zinc content, and seafood (mussels, oysters) must be in the diet.
Cooking products must be fresh and of high quality. You should choose foods that are free of hormones, dyes, antibiotics, active additives and preservatives.
If a man’s testosterone level is increased by 10%, then he becomes aggressive, often at risk, becomes impulsive and conflicting.This condition provokes the development of thrombosis, can lead to infertility, alopecia, and even cancer.
If a man has such symptoms, then an urgent consultation with a doctor is necessary. Therapy is carried out according to the diagnosis.
Testosterone at different stages of a man’s life affects him in different ways. Thanks to him, the boy grows testes, the chest becomes wider, the prostate gland begins to grow, and hair growth is observed. During puberty, the amount of androgen becomes higher and the sebaceous glands function more actively.
This leads to increased sweating and the appearance of blackheads on the skin of young guys. At the same time, active growth of bones and muscles begins. The ability to ejaculate during intercourse depends on the level of hormones.
After giving birth in a child’s family, a man’s androgen level decreases. What is the reason for this? This is due to everyday problems during this period, psychological mood and other factors.
An interesting fact, but those men who have increased testosterone are more likely than others to cheat on their partners. Such patients have a higher number of divorces. Another factor affecting the production of androgen is the visual perception of the female body, viewing erotica. And also an increase in his level is noticed when a man is in love.